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Minderoo Foundation

For a fair future

Photo credit: Edi Libedinsky via Unsplash.

Our vision is a society that values all people and natural ecosystems.

We will achieve this by uplifting communities, advancing gender equality, protecting natural ecosystems and responding to emerging challenges.

Latest Work

Empowering Aid Delivery

Enable the flow of food and medicine while maintaining the highest levels of security.

Global Slavery Index 2023

An estimated 50 million people are living in modern slavery.

Global Freedom Network

Global Freedom Network is the faith-based arm of Walk Free, an international human rights group working to accelerate the end of all forms of modern slavery.

Our focus areas


All children in Australia reach their full potential in thriving communities.

Gender Equality

All people realise their inherent freedom and equality.

Natural Ecosystems

Healthy ecosystems safeguarded for all generations.

Other work

Impact Missions

Agile response to existential threats and urgent challenges.

Latest News

Photo credit: Greg Sullivan via Getty Images.

Who we are

Minderoo Foundation takes on tough, persistent issues with the potential to drive massive change.

Andrew and Nicola Forrest founded Minderoo Foundation in 2001, and continue to drive its philanthropic mission today.

We incubate ideas, advocate for systems change and accelerate impact. We push the limits of what is believed possible.

Minderoo Foundation is proudly Australian, independent, forward thinking and seeks effective, scalable solutions.

Through bold, collaborative and selfless action, we must dismantle the systems that entrench inequality.

Together we collaborate, advocate, innovate, fight and act for a fair future.


Andrew Forrest

Chairman and Founder

Dr Andrew Forrest, AO PhD

Nicola Forrest

Co-Chair and Founder

Nicola Forrest, AO

Allan Myers


Allan Myers, AC KC

Barry McGuire


Barry McGuire

Tony Grist


Tony Grist

Maria Myers

Alternate Director

Maria Myers, AC

Executive Leadership

John Hartman

Chief Executive Officer
Natural Ecosystems Executive Director

John Hartman

Hayley Panetta

Impact Missions Executive Director

Hayley Panetta

Jacqueline Joudo Larsen

Gender Equality
Executive Director

Jacqueline Joudo Larsen

Jenna Palumbo

Effective Philanthropy
Executive Director

Jenna Palumbo

Rachael Davern

Finance, Technology & Operations
Executive Director

Rachael Davern

Lenda Oshalem

Advocacy & Engagement
Executive Director

Lenda Oshalem

Tracy Newman

People & Culture
Executive Director

Tracy Newman

Penny Dakin

Executive Director

Penny Dakin


All of equal importance, our values are the core threads that tightly weave us together. Ingrained in the fabric and character of our Foundation and anyone who represents us, they continuously challenge and inspire us to do better.


This value is inherent within all our values and must be present in all our actions. Recognise that in the end, no matter what position you are in, in the eyes of God you are no more – nor less – valuable than anyone else. Be vulnerable, take the risk to fully trust others. Give them the credit wherever possible. Build others up and put them first wherever you can. If you are a leader and you give the impression you are the smartest person in the room, you have failed as a leader, as this will not encourage others. Offer help to those around you, as even the smallest gestures can make a big difference to someone’s day.

Courage & Determination

When times are tough, and they often are when aiming for Stretch Targets, don’t give up or lower the targets, instead ask for help. Own your challenge but join your leaders in solving the problem – delegate up not down. You have the complete confidence and belief of your team that you can achieve what others cannot fathom.


Go to your leader for advice, not permission. A leader is only as good as the team they surround themselves with, and that’s where empowerment comes into its own. A leader should not consider themselves often a decision maker, but primarily as a mentor to their fully empowered team. Leaders must clearly articulate the Stretch Target, then encourage and empower their team to achieve it. You have great empowerment to act and take risk when acting within all our values. Be innovative, no matter your role. Don’t be afraid to share your ideas with others. Seek and be open to feedback and you will never fail alone. Take a considered risk with a Plan B, and you will keep growing throughout your career.


Be the most positive and energetic person in every group you join. Encourage others, particularly in failure. Know that out of every setback is the seed to equal or greater opportunity, you just have to find it. Your natural instinct must always be to be encouraging and kind.


Forgive and support each other, and always be kind. Be brave and vulnerable in your relationships. In times of conflict, pick up the phone or meet in person to resolve matters. Be compassionate and reach out personally to team members who appear to be struggling or upset. Provide praise proudly in public, and critical feedback in private and in person whenever possible. Always be loyal to one another, and in doing so never compromise safety or the organisation. Treat others how you hope to be treated yourself. Always demonstrate respect and embrace differences in others.


Find ways to do things better, faster, safer, and always less expensive. If you really try you will find the pathway to save money, save time, reduce schedules and increase value. Always prepare ahead for meetings so you can keep them efficient and as short as possible. Be frugal with your time – it is the most precious resource you have in life.

Generating Ideas

Seemingly crazy ideas can change you, your company, and the world. Have a crack at a brave and crazy idea – your Plan A – but always protect us with a bulletproof Plan B. Plan As often fail, and that’s OK, but not if you don’t have a totally reliable Plan B already in place. Be unafraid to speak up, and if you are the one listening and have an old war story that might kill an idea, stay silent and remember – if at first an idea doesn’t seem crazy, it’s unlikely to be a great idea.


All values are critical and must be accepted wholeheartedly – they are not a smorgasbord. Have the courage to speak up when you see others stray from our values. Be genuine, always – say what you mean, mean what you say. We act with integrity when we display all values, all the time. Remember the bathroom principal of life, always leave it tidier than you found it, being the best person you can be.


This is common sense, first and foremost. Look out for your mates and yourself. Be responsible for not only your own safety, but theirs too. It’s how you put love into action. Plan for their wellbeing, and for yours.

Stretch Targets

The most driving value of all. Always be uncomfortable with your level of challenge. Be in the deep end of the pool, learning to swim, as much as you can. If an initial target is attainable, reset it out of reach and follow all our values to achieve it. Your bulletproof Plan B will protect us. Never hesitate to reach out for help and delegate up when confusion or insurmountable challenges appear. You will only ever fail if you do so alone and don’t give your family an opportunity to help. Whether you have succeeded in Plan A, or caught its failure with your Plan B, you have succeeded – you have learnt and therefore grown in your career. Remember, while it is always your personal journey, we are all here to help you. As a team. As a family.

Policies and governance

Annual Report

Our stories of impact in 2023

Modern Slavery Statement

Photo credit: Jessica Wyld.


Andrew and Nicola Forrest founded Minderoo Foundation in 2001, and continue to drive its philanthropic mission today.

We take our name from Minderoo Station, the family homestead where Andrew grew up in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. It has been a part of the Forrest family since 1878. Minderoo is an Aboriginal word meaning permanent and clean water.

Andrew Forrest

Founder, Minderoo Foundation; Executive Chairman of Fortescue; Director, Tattarang Group

Dr Andrew Forrest AO is a global business leader and philanthropist. Through Minderoo Foundation, Tattarang and Fortescue, Dr Forrest is dedicated to leading the world to address the climate crisis and step beyond fossil fuels through green metals and green energy.

While he believes some challenges (for example, global warming) can only be met through business, led by responsible government, Minderoo Foundation focuses on radical solutions to human rights, ocean health, Indigenous disparity and equality for women and girls. Minderoo’s endowment now exceeds AU$7.6 billion.

In 2022, Dr Forrest committed US$500 million to the official Ukraine Development Fund to kickstart post-war reconstruction. Minderoo Foundation has also contributed US$8 million, including funding Ukraine’s first humanitarian grain shipment in August 2022 and providing grain storage facilities. In addition, Minderoo has supplied 170 power generators to Ukraine.

Dr Forrest has a PhD in marine ecology, serves as an IUCN Patron of Nature and was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia for distinguished service to philanthropy, mining, employment and sustainable foreign investment.

In 2016, he served as a councillor of the Global Citizen Commission, which was charged by the UN to modernise the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In 2013, Dr Forrest was appointed by the Australian Government to lead the country’s response to tackling indigenous disparity – the resultant Forrest Review was published in 2014.

Andrew Forrest

Nicola Forrest

Founder, Minderoo Foundation; Director, Tattarang Group

Nicola Forrest

With an enduring motivation to better the lives of children and a commitment to give a voice to those most vulnerable, Nicola Forrest AO believes in empowering individuals to better themselves and their communities.

Since 2001, as Founder and Co-Chair of Minderoo Foundation, Nicola has established and driven programs of work to create positive change for children, the arts, women and communities. Nicola’s contribution has seen her recognised as an Officer of the Order of Australia (AO), awarded the University of Canberra Chancellor’s Award for Philanthropy and invited to chair a working group on behalf of the Prime Minister of Australia to drive integration between the philanthropic, community and business sectors.

Under Nicola’s leadership, and in collaboration with partners in Australia and beyond, Minderoo Foundation has put an emphasis on data and research to identify and derive solutions to some of the world’s most intractable problems. She has also led the selection of world-class Scholars and Fellows, to study and reside in Western Australia within the Forrest Research Foundation – a hub for research innovation.

Nicola is Life Patron of the Black Swan State Theatre Company shoring up the company’s sustainability through the establishment of its inaugural Production Fund. As patron of the Kimberley Foundation Australia, Impact 100 WA and Sculpture by the Sea, Nicola champions arts, culture and community initiatives that better the lives of those most vulnerable.

National Press Club Address

It’s time for a high-quality early learning system.

Photo credit: Telethon Kids Institute.


All children in Australia reach their full potential in thriving communities.

Opportunity and disadvantage are not evenly distributed. They are predetermined from conception and are intergenerational, concentrated in particular places, and exacerbated by many social factors.

Often, those that are most disadvantaged are our First Nations people. By reimagining our approach to the early years and empowering community decision making, these cycles of disadvantage can be broken and a new trajectory can be charted.


Community agency and belonging

Communities are cohesive, collaborative and thriving places, with the power to make decisions and direct resources to solutions that best address their needs.

Early childhood development

All children between the ages of 0-5 have the ability to develop and learn, so they can reach their full potential and contribute to a better future for their communities.

Safety and economic security

Families have access to critical resources for a safe and secure home environment, giving children between the ages of 0-5 the opportunity to thrive.

Photo credit: Hector Pertuz via Adobe Stock.

Gender Equality

All people realise their inherent freedom and equality.

Women and girls represent half of the world’s population. By denying women and girls equal rights and meaningful inclusion, we are denying the achievement of our goals and ultimately wasting our collective potential.

While Minderoo Foundation considers the gendered impacts of all the problems we seek to solve, we believe a discrete focus on women and girls is required to break down the structural barriers that perpetuate many of these issues.


Equal voice and agency

Women and girls have equal influence in decision making, as well as equal access to financial resources.

Freedom from slavery

Women and girls are not disproportionately affected by modern slavery, and modern slavery is eradicated in all its forms.

Photo credit: ultramarinfoto via Getty Images.

Natural Ecosystems

Healthy ecosystems safeguarded for all generations.

The ocean is a vital ecosystem that plays a crucial role in sustaining life on Earth.

We are also dedicated to increasing ecosystem resilience to human driven threats, including climate change.


Sustainable ocean economy

Human activities in the ocean are ethical, sustainable, and do not compromise the health of marine environments.

Protect and restore ocean ecosystems

Biodiversity is preserved for future generations to enjoy, resilient to the impacts of climate change.

Climate action

Climate change is minimised as a threat multiplier to all our beneficiaries, in pursuit of a liveable planet free from fossil fuels.

Photo credit: Xinhua News Agency via Getty Images.

Impact Missions

Agile response to existential threats and urgent challenges.

The pace of global transformation is unprecedented, and with it comes an ever-present need to respond to emerging challenges and threats that affect our collective wellbeing.

Impact Missions are an important part of Minderoo Foundation’s response to shaping a fair future.

By tackling urgent societal challenges and threats with speed, adaptability, and clear impact goals, we can make a significant difference in the lives of individuals and communities worldwide.

Our impact missions

Empowering aid delivery

Enable the flow of food and medicine while maintaining the highest levels of security.


Respond to global or national crises that require urgent action.

Indigenous Employment

Australia’s largest employers are committed, empowered and accountable to achieving employment parity for First Nations people.

Plastics and Human Health

Focusing on the human health impacts of plastic particles and chemicals, which is an existential threat.

Artificial Intelligence

Facilitate global dialogue and support policies for greater public safety and government accountability for AI.

Resources & Publications


Global Slavery Index 2023

An estimated 50 million people are living in modern slavery.

Plastic Waste Makers Index 2023

More plastic. More waste. More pollution.

Indigenous Employment Index

The first comprehensive snapshot of Indigenous workplace representation.

Global Fishing Index

Assessing the sustainability of the world’s marine fisheries.

Annual Report

Our stories of impact in 2023.


Global Plastics Treaty

Reducing marine plastic pollution to zero through a comprehensive life-cycle approach to plastic management.

Exmouth Research Lab

The Minderoo Foundation Exmouth Research Lab provides scientists with state-of-the-art facilities enabling high quality, high-impact marine research, on the doorstep of the World Heritage listed Ningaloo Reef.

Resilient Communities Framework

The Resilient Communities Framework is a guide that covers the principles of effective community engagement to build disaster resilience. It also contains tools for resilience practitioners, community leaders, policymakers and funders to support resilience-building efforts across sectors.

Mislabelling restricts consumer choices for sustainable seafood

A landmark national study to determine the scale of seafood mislabelling in Australia has found more than one in 10 seafood products tested did not match the label.


Global Slavery Map Tool

Global map and data portal

Global Freedom Network

App and supporting resources

Global Plastic Watch

Mapping the world’s plastic pollution

Plastic Health Map

Systematic Evidence Map

Plastic Waste Makers Index


Indigenous Employment Index

Employer roadmap

Use the tool

Global Fishing Index

Explore the global data on fisheries

Newsby Minderoo Foundation

SafeGates IP

In Project SafeGates, Minderoo has developed:

  • a method to deliver humanitarian aid; and
  • the ability to sustainably scale that method to support greater and more reliable flows of humanitarian aid.

Project SafeGates entails:

  • the construction and operation of three new automated, efficient, and secure crossings (the SafeGates); and
  • the automation of the screening of vehicles delivering aid through security-enforced boundaries to mitigate, to the extent reasonably practicable, risk to either side.

Minderoo engaged Fortescue for its expertise (in engineering, procurement, logistics, design build, construction, project management services, and working in high risk locations), and to design the SafeGates, develop a works schedule and provide project management support.

The Project SafeGates Scope of Works and Project Plan (Plans) are made available by Minderoo on an “as is” basis and for informational purposes only.


البوابات الآمنة

שערי בטיחות.

Photo credit: Shana Novak via Getty Images

Plastic Waste Makers Index

More plastic. More waste. More pollution.

Key Findings


There is more single-use plastic waste than ever before (139 million tonnes in 2021).

Despite rising consumer awareness, corporate attention, and regulation, an additional 6 million metric tons (MMT) of waste was generated in 2021 compared to 2019 — still almost entirely made from fossil fuel-based “virgin” feedstocks.

Meanwhile, the top 20 list of petrochemical companies producing virgin polymers bound for single-use plastic remains effectively unchanged. While global capacity to produce these polymers is expected grow slower than the historical rate (2.7 per cent CAGR in 2021-27 vs 3.9 per cent in 2005-20), this still equates to an additional 60 MMT by 2027, of which we expect 17 MMT to be bound for single-use plastics.


Single-use plastic is not only a pollution crisis but also a climate one.

Cradle-to-grave greenhouse gas emissions from single-use plastics in 2021 were equivalent to the total emissions of the United Kingdom (460 million tonnes CO2e).

Most emissions are produced by the oil and gas and petrochemical industries in the “upstream” part of the lifecycle. Mechanical recycling reduces cradle-to-grave emissions by at least 30 to 40 per cent compared to producing polymers from fossil fuels by avoiding upstream emissions. While the emissions reduction opportunities from recycling are significant, they can only be part of the solution towards a net zero plastics economy.


Recycling is failing to scale fast enough and remains a marginal activity for the plastics sector.

Only strong regulatory intervention can solve what amounts to market failure.

From 2019-21, growth in single-use plastics made from virgin polymers was 15 times that from recycled feedstocks. Petrochemical companies are (naturally) only expanding into recycling in markets where the economic conditions are (somewhat) more favourable. These are markets where policies are more progressive and demand for recycled plastics is stronger. However, across all polymers and technologies, only 3 MMT of additional on par recycling capacity is expected to be brought online by 2027 (0.7 MMT by the petrochemical industry).


Within the petrochemical industry, there are two outliers making strong commitments to recycling and producing recycled polymers at scale.

In addition to these commitments, Far Eastern New Century (FENC) and Indorama Ventures are also now producing on par recycled polymers at scale.

A further eight companies have recently set ambitious 2030 recycled polymer targets of at least 20 per cent of production. Compared to the first edition of the Index, we see signs that the industry in general is taking circularity more seriously, but this will only amount to “greenwashing” if words are not backed up by action and investment.

More plastic, more waste and more pollution.

They’re shocking findings, but they’re the results of this second edition of the Plastic Waste Makers Index. For the petrochemical industry to argue otherwise is greenwashing of the highest order. We need a fundamentally different approach, that turns the tap off on new plastic production. We need a “polymer premium” on every kilogram of plastic polymer made from fossil fuel.”



Three big interventions would deliver a step change in single-use plastic waste and associated greenhouse gas emissions.


Limit fossil fuel plastic production and consumption.

Polymer producers

Include Scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions from plastic polymers in net zero climate targets and strategies.


Actively engage with investees (or use voting rights) to stop the building of new fossil fuel-based polymer facilities, or divest.


Put a levy on fossil-fuel polymer production and/or consumption to generate funds for scaling plastics collection, sorting and recycling infrastructure.

Other companies in the value chain

Set clear corporate targets to reduce virgin plastic consumption — e.g., through EMF/UN’s Global Commitment — and lend public support to policy measures with this objective.


Increase plastic products and materials that are designed for circularity and are circulated in practice.

Polymer producers

Set a minimum 20 per cent target by 2030 for recycled vs fossil fuel feedstock in polymer production.


Demand clear, ambitious and time-bound targets for recycled vs fossil fuel feedstock in polymer production from every producer.


Set target on overall plastic material circularity — i.e., combined mass of re-used, recycled, and sustainable plastics put on the market — including 20 per cent minimum recycled content standards for all single-use plastics by 2030.

Other companies in the value chain

Create certainty for greater investment in recycling by entering into long-term forward contracts for recycled plastics at fixed and fair prices.


Eliminate plastic leakage to the environment across the lifecycle through environmentally sound waste management.

Polymer producers

Invest in or partner with plastic waste collection, sorting and recycling systems and capacities, with a focus on high-leakage countries.


Lend public support for policies that will create economic conditions for more investment in plastics collection, sorting and recycling (e.g., through the Business Coalition for a Global Plastics Treaty).


Under the global plastics treaty, create a fund to support waste management systems in countries most impacted by plastic pollution (following the example of COP27’s Loss and Damage Fund).

Other companies in the value chain

Harmonise design standards for safe plastics use (including chemical additives), disposal and recyclability.


Plastic Waste Makers Index



Plastic Waste Makers Index 2023

Download the full PDF of the Plastic Waste Makers Index 2023.

Plastic Waste Makers Index 2023 : Full dataset

Download the full dataset for the Plastic Waste Makers Index 2023.

The download and use of this resource is bound by a content licence. Please read the licence and fill out the form below.

Please read the licence and agree to the terms.

Basis of Preparation (2023)

Download this document outlining the steps taken to complete each analysis.

KPMG Independent Limited Assurance (2023)

Download the Independent Limited Assurance report prepared by KPMG Australia.

Plastic Waste Makers Index 2021: Revealing the source of the single-use plastics crisis

Download the full PDF of the Plastic Waste Makers Index 2021.

Basis of Preparation (2021)

Download this document outlining the steps taken to complete each analysis.

KPMG Independent Limited Assurance (2021)

Download the Independent Limited Assurance report prepared by KPMG Australia.

Artwork by Julianne Wade.

Indigenous Employment Index

“I love my job. I love everything I do even that gives me grey hair and keeps me up at night. I wouldn’t change what I do. It gives me tears. It gives me frustration. It fills me with joy. It fills me with anger, fills me with pride, fills me with passion. Everything that I could ever want in a job.” [Indigenous employee]

Of Australia’s total workforce represented

Represented employees or 5 per cent of Australia’s workforce

Employers participated across Australia

Individuals interviewed, of whom 71 per cent are Indigenous

Indigenous voices

Today, Indigenous Australians remain vastly under-represented or excluded from the workforce. As of 2018, less than half (49.1 per cent) of working age Indigenous Australians were in some form of employment, compared to 75.9 per cent for non-Indigenous Australians. Worryingly, that gap only closed by 1.3 per cent during the decade to 2018. Indigenous employment parity will only be achieved when Indigenous employees are present in the workforce in the same proportion as they are in the national population, at approximately 3.3 per cent. But ‘true’ parity extends beyond a single representation measure.

The Indigenous Employment Index 2022 is the first comprehensive snapshot of Indigenous workplace representation, practices, and employee experiences ever to be carried out in Australia. Together, the participating organisations employ more than 700,000 Australians; about five per cent of the total Australian workforce, and 17,412 Indigenous Australians; around six per cent of the Indigenous workforce.

This research finds that one-off measures to create Indigenous employment must give way to a more comprehensive and systemic approach. Authentic commitments, tailored strategies with targets, and a broader definition of Indigenous employment success are critical to better Indigenous employment outcomes. There is genuine commitment from participating organisations to Indigenous employment, and progress is being made, as recognised by many interview participants. There is still much work to be done, however, to improve the attraction, retention, and progression of Indigenous employees, while creating culturally safe and inclusive environments where all employees can thrive.

Consider participating in the next Indigenous Employment Index.

Key Findings

“I love my job. I love everything I do even that gives me grey hair and keeps me up at night. I wouldn’t change what I do. It gives me tears. It gives me frustration. It fills me with joy. It fills me with anger, fills me with pride, fills me with passion. Everything that I could ever want in a job.” [Indigenous employee]

We find that just 5 per cent of participating employers fall into the highest performing category in terms of Indigenous employment practices and outcomes, whereas almost a third (28 per cent) fall into the lowest performing group, and half (55 per cent) fall into the “Growth” category.


The mean Indigenous employment rate across surveyed employers is 2.2%, ranging from 0.17% to 10.9%.

Considering a parity target of 3.3 per cent, this is promising progress. However, the Indigenous Employment Index reveals almost all employers have substantial room to improve on their Indigenous employment practices and outcomes. Only two of the 42 employers fell into the highest performing category in this Index, with almost a third in the lowest performing category.


Employers are failing to retain Indigenous employees at the same rate as non-Indigenous employees, and often prioritise recruitment over employee retention and development.

Only half of participating employers collect Indigenous retention data, of which the majority (62 per cent) reported lower retention of Indigenous employees compared to the rest of their workforce. In addition, over a third of the 42 participating employers do not provide any Indigenous-specific development opportunities.

“If we develop our own from the ground up, they’re more likely to stay”
[Indigenous employee]


76% of employers have Indigenous employment targets, of which only 67% report regularly on progress. organisations that reported regularly on progress had more than double the share of Indigenous employees than those that did not.

Indigenous employment targets are critical in driving employment outcomes, and must be complemented by a comprehensive strategy that addresses the full employee lifecycle. Reporting progress towards targets is associated with statistically significant better outcomes, demonstrating that simply having a plan or a target is not enough.


Indigenous employees are almost entirely absent from senior management and executive leadership levels.

Indigenous representation at senior leadership levels was just 0.7 per cent among 31 employers that reported the relevant data. Indigenous senior leadership is critical to elevating Indigenous voices and perspectives and supporting Indigenous employees. Organisations with reconciliation strategies or plans led by Indigenous leaders had more than double the share of Indigenous employees.

“When you don’t see yourself in your leaders, it’s hard, it’s a battle”
[Indigenous employee]


Racism against indigenous employees is common in the workplace, with over 50% of indigenous interviewees reporting direct or indirect racism currently and throughout their careers.

Consistent with findings from other research, many Indigenous employees feel culturally unsafe at work, meaning they cannot practice their cultural identity without discrimination, ridicule or denunciation. Employers have low levels of understanding of racism, and how to appropriately respond to it.


Eighty-one per cent of participating employers are involved in education-related programs or partnerships to attract and retain indigenous employees.

Pathway programs such as these can help Indigenous Australians transition from education or training into employment, and also help tailor employee skills and experience to meet organisational needs. Many Indigenous employees believe the best way to build an Indigenous workforce is by starting engagement in schools.

Call to action

“I was just a kid from the scrub and now I’m working for a global company. It blows my mind a bit and it really put me on a good career path.” [Indigenous employee]

We are calling for immediate action from employers, governments and investors to help end Indigenous employment disparity.


We are calling on executive leaders in all Australia based organisations to:


Set robust indigenous employment targets and report regularly and transparently on progress towards them, to measure the effectiveness of your indigenous employment strategy.


Work to retain current indigenous employees, rather than focusing only on indigenous recruitment.


Treat racism as a safety issue and acknowledge that work is still required to ensure that your workplace is culturally safe for indigenous employees.


Follow this index’s employer roadmap to take the next steps towards employment parity, tailored to your organisation.


We are calling on the federal government to:


Regularly compile and publish data to comprehensively report on the state of indigenous employment nationally.


Activate industry to help close the indigenous employment gap through legislation.


Prioritise building an indigenous community-controlled employment sector.


We are calling on all institutional investors to:


Understand the investment risk caused by poor company culture and racism, and the fact that more diverse companies are likely to outperform less diverse companies.


Evaluate current investee companies and consider indigenous employment performance when making investments.


Engage with investee companies and set expectations.

Indigenous employment parity is achievable in our generation but requires approximately 300,000 more Indigenous Australians to enter paid work by 2040.

This is our responsibility, and our opportunity to take.

What impact will your organisation make?

Participating organisations

“The cultural differences make it a lot more work. And the education system around amalgamating the two cultures together… It’s the openness and the mindset of people that needs to be enhanced to better understand and work together.” [Indigenous employee]

42 Australian organisations contributed to the Indigenous Employment Index, with all organisations completing a detailed survey.

Advanced Personnel Management
ANZ Bank
Australia Post
Australian Red Cross
Australian Unity Limited
Clayton Utz
Commonwealth Bank
Compass Group (Australia)
Domino’s Pizza Enterprises
Downer Group EDI
Fortescue Metals Group

Goodstart Early Learning
Jones Lang LaSalle – JLL
KPMG Australia
Linfox Australia
Minter Ellison
NSW Department of Communities and Justice
NSW South Eastern Sydney Local Health District
PwC Australia
Rio Tinto

Serco Australia
Silver Chain Group
South 32
St John of God Health Care
The Star Entertainment Group
Toll Group
Transport for NSW
University of Melbourne
WA Department of Health
WA Police Force
Woolworths Group

Employer Roadmap Tool

Indigenous Employment Index

Employer Roadmap

Use the tool


Woort Koorliny: Australian Indigenous Employment Index 2022

The 2022 Indigenous Employment Index is an Australian-first assessment of Indigenous workplace representation, practices, and employee experiences.


List of Indigenous Employment Index employer questions.

Distress Protocol

Protocol for interviewer’s responses to emotional distress expressed by interviewees during interview.

Employees Interview Questions

List of interview questions asked of participating employees.

Line Managers Interview Questions

List of interview questions asked of participating line managers.

Executive Interview Questions

List of interview questions asked of participating executives.

Focus Group Guide

Guide for interviewers in conducting the focus groups.

Photo credit: Colby James.


Revolutionising marine conservation by unravelling the ocean genome.

Ocean: the continuous body of salt water that covers more than 70 per cent of the Earth’s surface.

Omics: novel, comprehensive approaches for analysis of genetic or molecular profiles.

The ocean is in the midst of a biodiversity crisis

We’ve seen a rapid decline in ocean biodiversity from the cumulative effects of unsustainable fishing practices, rising seawater temperatures, ocean acidification, the expansion of oxygen minimum zones, pollution and eutrophication of coastal habitats.

As a result, thousands of marine species are considered endangered and extinction rates have accelerated in the past century. Addressing this crisis is one of the most challenging tasks of our time.

Cataloguing marine biodiversity and describing ecological patterns that shape our understanding of species’ distribution and evolution is fundamental to conservation. Ocean-scale, high-quality data generated by ground-breaking technologies, integrated by multi-disciplinary thinkers, and well communicated to policymakers, are required to arrest marine biodiversity loss before it is too late.

Genomics and artificial intelligence (AI) are technologies that have the potential to transform ocean conservation. Minderoo Foundation’s OceanOmics program is advancing marine genomics and computational technologies and approaches with the aim to improve knowledge through monitoring programs that inform how we combat threats to ocean health.

Research using eDNA, marine genomics and AI

Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are the architectural blueprints for all life on Earth. Capturing and analysing these blueprints from pieces of DNA or cells found in the environment with genomic tools is the study of environmental DNA (eDNA).

We believe eDNA-based marine genomics and AI can form the technological basis for innovations that will revolutionise how we measure, understand, and ultimately protect life in the ocean.

By developing and deploying these technologies we will characterise and monitor marine wildlife at a pace and level of precision that traditional survey methods cannot achieve.

We have equipped the research vessel, Pangaea Ocean Explorer, with shipboard laboratories containing cutting-edge cellular and molecular biology equipment, including high throughput DNA sequencing instruments and bioinformatics workstations.

We are investing in building and openly publishing the reference libraries for marine vertebrates which are necessary to accurately detect, monitor and determine the health of these species.

Key Focus Areas

Marine Expeditions

Our goal is to use eDNA approaches to more accurately monitor life in the global ocean. With an initial focus on the continental Australian Commonwealth marine estate, the Pangaea Ocean Explorer has already embarked on eight voyages, enabling sample collection and onboard genomic analyses for population-scale monitoring of the health of Australia’s ocean wildlife.

Samples of eDNA were collected and analysed from Australia’s Great Barrier Reef and Ningaloo Reef, as well as from the unique marine ecosystems of the Abrolhos Islands, the underwater canyon system of the Perth Canyon, and the nearshore waters off the south-west coast of Western Australia.

Contributing valuable evidence to support conservation and protection

The OceanOmics program supports the goal of conserving 30 per cent of the world’s ocean by 2030 by fostering novel methods for monitoring and combating threats to marine wildlife and ecosystems; quantifying the health status of current marine protected areas (MPAs); and assisting governments and management agencies in identifying new biodiversity hotspots and ecosystems in need of protection.

Generating reference genomes for thousands of marine species

To characterise marine biodiversity based on eDNA we require a library of references. That way, we can look up the snippets of DNA found in seawater and identify all the species present in our samples, similar to a dictionary. Unfortunately, to date only one per cent of the 20,000 known species of marine fish have had their genome sequenced. In collaboration with our global partners, one of OceanOmics’ ambitious goals is to generate and release to the public the reference genomic resources for thousands of marine species; and by doing so empower conservation science.


To support and steer this important work, Minderoo Foundation collaborates with leading experts in an array of marine genomics, AI and conservation fields from the USA, Europe, New Zealand, and Australia through the OceanOmics Scientific Advisory Panel.

  • Professor Barbara Block, Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, United States
  • Professor Michael Bunce, Institute of Environment Science and Research (ESR), New Zealand Crown Research Institute, New Zealand
  • Professor Tom Gilbert, Centre for Evolutionary Hologenomics, GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Associate Professor Siavash Mirarab, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, United States
  • Dr Ramunas Stepanauskas, Single Cell Genomics Center, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, United States

eDNA sequencing datasets

Raw reads

The raw DNA sequencing reads of our expeditions are continuously uploaded to the Sequence Read Archive (SRA).

When using this data, please acknowledge the Minderoo Foundation by including this text in your Acknowledgments section:We would like to thank Minderoo Foundation for sequencing reads deposited in [use sequence IDs or DOIs here].

Rowley Shoals Expedition – BioProject PRJNA930913


Partner logo UWA
CSIRO logo
Illumina logo
VGB logo
UC San Diego logo
Parks Australia
Photo credit: Blue Media Exmouth.

Exmouth Research Lab

The Minderoo Foundation Exmouth Research Lab provides scientists with state-of-the-art facilities enabling high quality, high-impact marine research, on the doorstep of the World Heritage listed Ningaloo Reef.

The lab is attracting the world’s best marine researchers and scientists to the Ningaloo coast to study and improve ocean health and resilience.

This unique facility achieves the level of sophisticated environment control required to simulate conditions associated with climate change from temperature and acidification. It also supports the latest molecular testing equipment. Combining the aquaria and genetics lab under one roof has already allowed critical research into identifying heat-resilient coral that can survive damaging heatwaves. The molecular laboratory is also enabling environmental DNA fingerprinting to monitor endangered sea snakes and wedgefish, and unlock forensic techniques to reveal the movements and behaviour of whale sharks.

Take a Tour of the Facilities


The Exmouth Research Lab is in the coastal town of Exmouth, which is approximately 1270km north of Perth. Exmouth is situated on the northeastern side of the Cape Range Peninsula and faces Exmouth Gulf.

The western side of Cape Range Peninsula is fringed by the Ningaloo Reef. The Ningaloo Reef Marine Park and adjoining Cape Range National Park are situated inside The Ningaloo Coast World Heritage Area.

The resident population is approximately 2,500 but visitors can greatly increase this number during the main tourism season.

Exmouth is serviced by Learmouth Airport, which is situated about 37km south of Exmouth.


Exmouth is characterised by a semi-arid climate with a long-term average rainfall of about 250mm/year (based on the Learmouth rainfall station). Mean maximum temperatures range from 38°C in January to 24.4°C in July. The northwest Australian coastline between Broome and Exmouth is the most cyclone-prone region of the entire Australian coastline, having the highest frequency of coastal crossings.

The two closest BOM weather recording sites to Exmouth are:

Learmonth Airport # 005007; Lat: 22.24 °S Long: 114.10 °E
Vlamingh Head # 005024; Lat: 21.81 °S Long: 114.11 °E

Timing Considerations

  • Mar – Apr: Coral spawning.
  • Apr – Jul: Peak whale shark season in Exmouth, the annual Ningaloo Whale Shark Festival usually takes place in July.
  • Apr – Sep: Moderate temperatures.
  • Jun – Nov: Exmouth’s peak whale-watching (and visitor) season.
  • Aug – Nov: Peak wildflower season in Exmouth.
  • Dec – Mar: Very hot temperatures.

Weather station

See real time data from the Minderoo Exmouth weather station.

Smart buoys

See the data from our smart buoys that relay temperature information and latest conditions in real time.


The Exmouth Research Lab uses solar energy for 100 per cent of its electricity needs during daylight hours.

The use of single-use plastic bags and similar are discouraged at the Exmouth Research Lab and throughout Exmouth more generally. Please use non-plastic bags or cardboard cartons for carrying shopping.

Contact us

2 Truscott Crescent, Exmouth, Western Australia.

For all enquiries, please contact us via this email:

Before contacting the Exmouth Research Lab, please check if your questions can be answered by the information on this page.



A list of the facilities available to researchers at our state-of-the-art lab.

Early stage planning

Some considerations to take into account early in the process of applying to use / using the lab.

Working with us

Be aware of the support provided, requirements and project criteria for projects using the lab.

Expressions of interest

Relevant information for those seeking to apply to use the lab’s facilities.

Budget template

Template for all expressions of interest applications.

Photo credit: Christian Aslund / EyeEm via Getty Images.

Global Fishing Index

Assessing the sustainability of the world’s marine fisheries

Key Findings

Over the past 50 years, the world has witnessed a massive decline in the health of its fisheries. Quite simply, we are removing fish from the ocean at a far greater rate than they can naturally replenish.

Fisheries are big business – with a staggering 109 million tonnes of marine fish caught globally in 2018. These fisheries provide millions of people with income, food and nutrition – yet many fish stocks are being severely misused.

The Global Fishing Index is a comprehensive report on the state of marine fisheries around the world. A world-first assessment of the governance and sustainability of fisheries in 142 coastal states, the Index uncovers critical gaps leading to overfishing and calls on governments and businesses to declare their intent and demonstrate action to reverse fisheries decline.


Half of fish stocks are overfished – and nearly 1 in 10 have been driven to collapse.

Of the 1,439 stocks assessed, almost half (45 per cent) have been depleted to less than 40 per cent of their pre-fishing population – our definition of ‘overfished’. Additionally, nearly 1 in 10 have been driven to collapse.

Stock abundance graph


52 per cent of the global catch is from stocks that lack sufficient data to determine if they are sustainable or not.

Sustainability graph

Without this information, policy makers are unable to effectively manage fisheries to ensure sustainable use. There is a severe information gap in coastal fisheries – 29 countries have not assessed a single national stock, despite the importance of these fisheries for local jobs, food and nutrition.


With few exceptions, countries are not delivering against global sustainability commitments.

Without this information, policy makers are unable to effectively manage fisheries to ensure sustainable use. There is a severe information gap in coastal fisheries – 29 countries have not assessed a single national stock, despite the importance of these fisheries for local jobs, food and nutrition.

Governance top 25 graph


Most fisheries lack science-based management.

Here’s where countries are falling down: (1) fisheries data are not consistently collected or analysed, (2) data aren’t being used for management, and (3) laws and policies aren’t being enforced. For example, only 41 per cent of countries apply harvest control rules – pre-agreed rules that guide management action based on stock status – in their most valuable fishery.

Top 5 governance gaps graph


Key stakeholders, including local fishing communities, are unable to effectively participate in management.

Despite their importance in enabling effective management, few countries empower important stakeholders – notably local fishing communities – to meaningfully participate in management processes. For example, nearly 40 per cent of countries lack “bottom up” forms of governance, such as community-based or customary management.

Call to Action

We are calling on governments, businesses and local communities


Governments and businesses need to set strong, time-bound and measurable targets to restore fish stocks and improve management. These targets should be accompanied by clear action plans, with progress regularly monitored and reported.


Establish and expand data collection programs to additional fisheries and work to integrate other types of information, including stakeholder knowledge, into decision-making processes.


Adopt evidence-based management measures and strategies, such as catch and/or effort limits and harvest control rules, in all fisheries.

How You Can Help

There are a number of ways you can help end overfishing and ensure there is seafood for future generations.


Address the worst problems first – including overfished or unassessed stocks and critical governance gaps. You can use your country’s Index results as a starting point.

Adopt evidence-based policies that promote sustainable fishing, including science-based catch and fishing effort limits, rebuilding plans, and harvest control rules.

Invest in improving fisheries management – explore what has been successful elsewhere and work to adapt and replicate to meet local needs.


Audit your supply chain and require full disclosure about fishing practices and activities from your source companies and vessels.

Shift sourcing toward suppliers that show commitment to and progress towards good fishing practices and management.

Advocate for, fund and implement policies that will increase the sustainability of fisheries in your supply chain. For example, via supporting third-party certification and credible fishery improvement projects.


Get informed – learn about where your seafood comes from, who caught it and whether it’s sustainable or not.

Press for change – Urge government and industry leaders to take action to improve the state of fisheries.

Consume consciously – where possible, opt to purchase only seafood that is sustainable and well managed.


Drive innovation to develop fit-for-purpose solutions for your fisheries.

Push for policy change, individually or as part of a cooperative or fisher association.

Collaborate with scientists, managers, and other groups to identify and mitigate threats to local fish stocks and ecosystems.

Case Studies

Despite the lack of progress towards fisheries sustainability globally, there have been pockets of success where interventions have improved fisheries outcomes. Important lessons can be learned from these ‘bright spots’ – instances where strong action and innovative solutions are improving fisheries outcomes. These case studies highlight successful approaches to inspire new solutions to address fisheries challenges.


The Global Fishing Index 2021: Assessing the sustainability of the world’s marine fisheries

The 2021 Global Fishing Index is a world-first assessment of the governance and sustainability of fisheries in 142 coastal states. The Index uncovers critical gaps leading to overfishing and calls on governments and businesses to declare their intent and demonstrate action to reverse fisheries decline.

The Global Fishing Index 2021: Technical Methods

The Technical Methods outlines the methods used to produce the 2021 Global Fishing Index, including data collection and analyses, treatment of missing data, scoring and internal and external quality assurance.

The Global Fishing Index 2021: Governance Conceptual Framework

The Governance Conceptual Framework outlines the two-level hierarchical framework used to assess governance capacity in the 2021 Global Fishing Index.

The Global Fishing Index 2021: Governance Indicator Codebook

The Governance Indicator Codebook outlines the purpose of each of the 72 indicators used to inform the 2021 Global Fishing Index governance assessments, along with the data sources and scoring process for each indicator.

The Global Fishing Index 2021: Dataset

This dataset includes all data used to inform the 2021 Global Fishing Index, a summary of the missing data in the governance assessments and three novel datasets that were generated in partnership with Global Fishing Watch.

The download and use of this resource is bound by a content licence. Please read the licence and fill out the form below.

Please read the licence and agree to the terms.
Photo credit: Mikroman6 via Getty Images.

Plastic Health Map

The state of research on plastic in people

About the plastic health map

The first ever Plastic Health Map collates research that measures the potential human health effects caused by a wide range of plastic chemicals.

In the absence of health monitoring for these plastic chemicals, the Plastic Health Map shows what has been studied over several decades and is a tool to help us transition to a world where plastic is more sustainable, safer and free of toxic chemicals.

It brings together data from more than 3,500 primary studies from 1960 to 2022, which can be explored by researchers, clinicians, policymakers and anyone keen to find out more, via a user-friendly dashboard.

Evidence focuses on plastic polymers, bisphenols, plasticisers, flame retardants, and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS).

Users can search by chemical or health outcome, in different countries, age groups and more.

The methods and results of this systematic evidence mapping project are published in the Environment International article.

Key Findings


There are significant gaps in research on how plastic materials affect human health.

  • Of more than 1,500 chemicals mapped, less than 30 per cent have been investigated for human health impacts.
  • Many human health outcomes have not been investigated for any given chemicals class.
  • No human exposure studies screened in the time frame of this project looked at the health impacts of micro- and/or nanoplastics.
  • Very few studies were conducted in low-income countries.
  • Limited studies focused on older/elderly populations.
  • While more than 1,000 studies looked at the effects of mothers’ plastic exposure on children, no studies were carried out on the health of children whose fathers have been exposed to plastic chemicals.
Chemical paper count


Studies on health impacts of substitute chemicals commence many years after introduction.

As plastic chemicals proliferate, regulation struggles to keep pace with the quantity and complexity of determining their health effects. Restricted and banned chemicals are often replaced by structurally similar substitutes with the same or other unknown hazards. Only a small number of studies investigated these.

Trend in number of health articles published per year for classes of plastic chemicals banned/restricted and their substitutes

In each plot, the vertical lines from left to right indicate first ban/restriction of original chemicals, the rise in use of substitute chemicals and the rise in health articles published on substitute chemicals, respectively.

Chemical group - PBDEs and OPEs - Total articles per year.
Chemical group - bisphenol and bisphenol analogues - Total articles per year.
Chemical group - traditional phthalates and phthalate substitutes - Total articles per year.

The Plastic Health Map

A systematic evidence map of human health studies on plastic-associated chemicals

Photo of - The world-first Plastic Health Map allows users to filter scientific literature available by type of plastic chemical exposure, country, and human health outcomes.

Explore the data

The Plastic Health Map is an open access tool for researchers, policymakers and interested citizens on the state of human health research and plastic chemicals exposure. It provides important insights for policy, governance and further scientific enquiry.

Plastic Health World Map.

Check out the videos for an overview and how to find the data of interest.

Frequently asked questions

What information does the database provide and how do I search it?

The Plastic Health Map is an open-access, interactive systematic evidence database collating human health research on a wide range of plastic chemicals from several different chemical classes, published between 1960 and 2022.

The database includes interactive plots and heatmaps showing the number of articles published each year by plastic chemical class, individual chemical, category of health outcome and the geographical distribution of the studies.

The plots and heatmaps can be filtered by plastic chemical, health outcome category, year of publication, study design, population (including country), age group and general/special exposure risk. Article references can be viewed and downloaded based on the filters selected.

Where can I learn more about the study behind the database?

The journal article published in Environment International provides background information, details on our study methodology, a comprehensive overview of the database, as well as detailed discussion of the results identified by the study. Additional supplementary data is downloadable directly from the journal’s website. Our project and relevant updates can also be found on our OSF page.

Did the study look at all the plastic chemicals?

It is estimated that there are more than 10,500 chemicals used in plastic production and only a fraction of these have been studied for human exposure and health outcomes. We conducted a targeted search for 1,557 chemicals categorised as polymers, bisphenols, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and plastic additives functioning as plasticisers and/or flame retardants. The Plastic Health Map houses the entire searchable database of included chemicals, indexing the multiple synonyms and commonly used terminology describing these chemicals.

I’m having trouble connecting to the database – what can I do?

We recommend using Chrome or Microsoft Edge. If you have trouble connecting:

  1. Check your browser’s security settings – you may need to delete cookies that have been saved.
  2. Check that the beginning of the URL starts with “https” (not “http”).

The figures (heatmaps and plots) in the Map look crowded/squashed on my screen – how can I fix this?

First, the Map is best viewed on a full computer screen with the browser window “maximised”, rather than on a mobile device. Second, the “squashed” issue is related to the web-browser settings and can be fixed using the zoom function under “settings”. Try reducing the zoom gradually until the figures present properly without overlap/squashing of text and images (80-90 per cent may be suitable when using a large monitor; 67 per cent on a small laptop).

Why are microplastics and nanoplastics (that is, plastic particles) missing from the Plastic Health Map?

Despite including micro- and nanoplastics in our search strategy, just one study screened during this project measured microplastics in human tissues and analysed relationships with health outcomes. As it was the only study measuring the plastic exposure in faeces, this study is not represented in the Plastic Health Map but is described in our paper. We are aware that further studies on particles may have been published since January 2022, and these will be represented in future updates.

How should I reference the database in my projects or publications?

Please cite our Environment International article and the Minderoo website when referencing the Plastic Health Map.

What are the limitations of the database?

The scope of the chemicals in the Plastic Health Map is limited to polymers, plasticisers, flame retardants, bisphenols and PFAS, although we recognise that humans are potentially exposed to many other plastic chemicals. There is potential for the database to include others. Due to time and resource limitations, only articles published/available in the English language are included in the database.

While we indicate whether studies involved male/female or mixed sex populations, for mixed populations we do not provide details on any sub-analyses that may have been conducted on male/female groups.

The Map does not display the correlations found/not found between plastic exposures and health outcome measures. We followed the typical systematic evidence map framework to demonstrate the scope of research conducted to date, without assessing the quality of studies, which would be necessary to report on correlations.

Will the database be updated?

We aim to update the database periodically and this will be announced on our OSF page. We are open to collaborating on future projects to improve or extend the database.

Who can I contact for questions and suggestions regarding the database?

We welcome questions, feedback and collaboration on this project.


The Plastic Health Map was created by Minderoo Foundation, in collaboration with Australian research institutes:

Bhedita Seewoo [a,b], Louise Goodes [a,b], Louise Mofflin [a,b], Yannick Mulders [a,b], Enoch Wong [a,b], Priyanka Toshniwal [a,b], Manuel Brunner [a,c], Jennifer Alex [a], Brady Johnston [a], Ahmed Elagali [a,b], Aleksandra Gozt [a], Greg Lyle [d], Omrik Choudhury [a], Terena Solomons [e], Christos Symeonides [a,f], Sarah Dunlop [a,b]

  1. Minderoo Foundation
  2. School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Australia
  3. School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Australia
  4. School of Population Health, Curtin University, Australia
  5. Health and Medical Sciences (Library), The University of Western Australia, Australia
  6. Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Royal Children’s Hospital, Australia


Gratefully acknowledging valuable contributions from:

Emily White, Tristan Dale, Hamish Newman, Delia Hendrie, Alina Naveed, Andrew Lowe, Mark Norrett, Matthew Cantrell, Megan Bakeberg, Anastazja Gorecki, Jane Edgeloe, Akila Yapa, Elizabeth Thomas, Joanne Webb, Lisa Hooyer, The UWA Library, Allan Finn, and Julie Glanville.

Contact us

We welcome questions, feedback and collaboration on this project.

Gettyimages of the globe shrink wrapped in plastic. Photo credit: Henrik Weis.
Photo credit: Shutterstock
Global Plastics Treaty

About the Global Plastics Treaty

Plastic pollution is everywhere. It's in the air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we eat and even in us. From the hazardous chemicals that can unknowingly affect our health to the microplastics saturating our environment, if left unchecked, plastic pollution and its impacts will only get worse.

That’s why we’re calling for a legally binding Global Plastics Treaty, which includes three key asks:

Key asks


Reduction of virgin fossil fuel-based plastic production.


Removal of harmful chemicals in plastics.


Creation of a scientific advisory body to guide treaty implementation and adaptation.

Would you like a side of plastics with that?

By Dr. Tony Worby, Chief Scientist

Here’s some food for thought - Plastic pollution is everywhere. It's in the air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we eat and even in us.

Stay Informed

Sign up to receive updates as we advocate for an international legally binding instrument on plastic pollution.


The Polymer Premium: A Fee on Plastic Pollution

Closing the financing gap for implementing an ambitious global plastics treaty

Elaborating on the options of the draft plastics instrument to manage chemicals and polymers of concern

University of Wollongong, Australia.

The Minderoo-Monaco Commission on Plastics And Human Health

Examining plastic’s impact on people and planet at every stage of its life cycle (read summary).

Plastic Health Map

A world-first open-access database that maps research on plastic chemical exposure and human health impacts, providing policy, governance and scientific insights.

The Plastic Pollution Fee: Design Study

Examining how a fee can support the objectives and implementation of the legally binding instrument to end plastic pollution.

The Price of Plastic Pollution

Exploring the social costs and corporate liabilities of plastic pollution.

Plastic Waste Makers Index 2023

Revealing the source of single-use plastics and their contribution to climate change.

Buy Now Pay Later

A review on hazards to human and planetary health from plastics production, use and waste

Blueprint for the design, construction, and validation of a plastic and phthalate-minimised laboratory

Plastic Waste Makers Index

Purchase Order Terms & Conditions

Exclusive terms

  1. The Purchase Order and these Conditions (collectively the Agreement) constitute the entire agreement between the party referred to in the ‘Additional information’ section of the Purchase Order (Company) and the Vendor for the supply of the goods or services specified in the Purchase Order. In the event of any conflict between the Purchase Order and these Conditions, the Purchase Order will take precedence.
  2. This Agreement may not be varied except in writing signed by Company. Any variation will only be applicable to the specific Purchase Order for which the terms and conditions are varied and will not apply to past or future Purchase Orders nor oblige Company to agree to such a variation for any other Purchase Orders.
  3. To the extent the Vendor’s terms and conditions are supplied with goods or services (including as printed on consignment notes or other documents), those terms and conditions will be of no legal effect and will not constitute part of the Purchase Order (even if any representative of Company signs those terms and conditions or annexes the terms and conditions to the Purchase Order).
  4. These Conditions apply only to the extent that they are relevant to the supply of the goods or services listed in the Purchase Order.

Specific warranties and conditions

  1. The Vendor warrants and represents that it is duly incorporated and has obtained all necessary approvals to execute and perform its obligations under this Agreement.
  2. If the Vendor is contracting in the capacity of a trustee of a trust, then the Vendor warrants and represents to Company that:
    1. it is duly and validly appointed as trustee for the trust;
    2. it has the lawful authority to enter into this Agreement for and on behalf of the trust; and
    3. it has a right of indemnity over the trust assets in respect of meeting any expense or debt incurred by the Vendor in connection with this Agreement.
  3. In the absence of a specification or sample, the Vendor warrants and represents that all goods or services supplied must be the best of their respective kinds and subject to Company’s satisfaction. In all cases the goods or services are to be of first class workmanship, of merchantable quality and fit for the purpose as represented by the Vendor to Company or the purpose which could reasonably be inferred by a professional supplying the goods or services. Services must be performed by appropriately qualified, competent, skilled, experienced and professional personnel and must be rendered with the degree of skill, care and diligence expected of a competent professional with experience in carrying out similar services. The goods or services must comply with any applicable legislation and relevant standard of the Standards Association of Australia, and must be supplied with copies of all material safety data sheets for dangerous goods.
  4. Unless otherwise specified, the Vendor warrants and represents that the goods are properly and safely packed and delivered to, or the services are performed at, the place and within the time period specified in the Purchase Order.
  5. The Vendor warrants and represents that it has complete ownership of the goods free of any liens, charges and encumbrances and Company will be entitled to clear, complete and quiet possession of the goods.
  6. The Vendor warrants and represents that any of the goods or services supplied under this Agreement and the use or enjoyment of those goods or services does not and will not infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or confidentiality of any person.
  7. The representations and warranties under clauses 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 are made on a continuing basis and remain unaffected notwithstanding suspension, termination or expiry of this Agreement.

Inspection and acceptance

  1. Company has a reasonable time after delivery to inspect the goods and reserves the right to inspect any goods before despatch from the Vendor’s premises. Company may inspect or witness tests on the goods or services or their results at any time. Where the Vendor is providing professional services, the Vendor must keep and maintain accurate and reasonably detailed books and records in connection with the performance of the services. The Vendor will permit Company to audit and examine any books and records at any time. Company’s acknowledgement of receipt, inspection or payment for goods or services does not relieve the Vendor of any responsibility or liability (including any express or implied warranties or guarantees) and does not constitute acceptance by Company.
  2. Without limiting any other rights or remedies it may have, Company may (as applicable):
    1. reject any defective goods or services by written notice;
    2. require the Vendor to repair, resupply or make good the defective goods or services;
    3. itself repair, make good or resupply the defective goods or services; or
    4. appoint a third party to repair, make good or resupply the defective goods or services.
  3. The Vendor must:
    1. with respect to a decision made by Company under clause 13(a), provide a full refund of any purchase price paid in respect to any rejected goods or services and Company may procure such goods or services elsewhere; and
    2. with respect to a decision made by Company under clause 13(b), repair, resupply or make good the defective goods or services at its cost.
  4. If Company elects in writing, the funds described in clause 14(a) may be set off against other amounts owing by the Company to the Vendor under this Agreement.
  5. If Company does not make a decision under clause 13, and the goods or services are left at Company’s site, Company will be deemed to have accepted the goods.


  1. The responsibility for care and custody of the goods together with the risk of loss or damage to the goods remains with the Vendor and does not pass to Company until Company:
    1. takes delivery of the goods; and
    2. inspects and accepts the goods in accordance with clauses 12, 13, 14, and 15.

Site rules

  1. Prior to providing any services at Company’s site, the Vendor must ensure:
    1. that all personnel required to work on the site under this Agreement have attended the appropriate inductions (as specified by Company); and
    2. if required by Company, submit a safety and/or environmental management plan to Company for approval.
  2. During performance of the services at the site the Vendor must comply with all of Company’s site specific rules, procedures and requirements; with all relevant legislation and regulations; and with all directions from Company’s representatives, including safety or environmental representatives of Company. The Vendor acknowledges that it will enter Company’s site at its own risk.
  3. In performing any services the Vendor must use its best endeavours not to interfere with any of Company’s activities, or the activities of any other person on Company’s site and must ensure that Company’s site is left secure, clean, orderly and fit for immediate use.


  1. The price is inclusive of all costs incurred by the Vendor in the supply of the goods or the performance of the services including all charges for packaging, packing, insurance and delivery of the goods in accordance with this Agreement and the cost of any items used or supplied in conjunction with the services. This price is also inclusive of all duties and taxes except GST. Unless authorised in writing by Company, no charge for extras (including government duties and taxes, except for GST) in excess of the value of the Purchase Order will be accepted.
  2. The Vendor must submit a tax invoice which fully complies with all State or Federal legislative requirements for any work performed under this Agreement. Subject to receipt of a tax invoice, if any supply made under this Agreement is or becomes subject to GST, the party to whom the supply is made must pay to the party making the supply an additional amount of GST in addition to any consideration payable or to be provided elsewhere in this Agreement. If any party is required to reimburse or indemnify the other party for a cost, expense or liability incurred by the other party, the amount of that cost, expense or liability for the purpose of this Agreement is the amount of the cost, expense or liability incurred less the amount of any credit or refund of GST to which the party incurring the cost, liability or expense is entitled to claim.
  3. The Company reserves the right to delay payment of the invoice until the Company is:
    1. able to independently verify the Vendor’s bank account details; or
    2. able to comply with all laws and regulations because the Vendor provides all required information to the Company.
  4. Payment of the invoice will be made as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company is able to verify or comply as the case may be.

Liability and insurance

  1. The Vendor must indemnify and keep indemnified Company from and against all losses, actions, claims, procedures, damages, costs and expenses of any kind arising out of or in connection with the Vendor’s performance under this Agreement.
  2. Neither party is liable for any special, indirect or consequential loss or damage, in contract, tort (including negligence) under statute or otherwise, including loss of goodwill, loss of revenue, loss of profit or loss of business opportunity.
  3. The Vendor must, at its own expense, procure and maintain the insurances required in writing by Company from time to time and ensure that every subcontractor engaged by it maintains insurance in the same manner. In addition to the insurances required in writing by Company, where the Vendor is providing professional services, the Vendor must procure and maintain professional indemnity insurance of not less than $5 million for each claim and in the aggregate for all claims arising in the same insurance period, covering the liability of the Vendor for any professional services provided by the Vendor under this Agreement. The professional indemnity insurance must be maintained for 6 years after the end of this Agreement. Before supplying any goods or services or performing any work under this Agreement the Vendor must lodge with Company certificates of currency to evidence the existence of the policies required to be arranged by the Vendor and its subcontractors. All costs incurred by Company as a consequence of the Vendor not being insured to the appropriate extent, will become a debt due from the Vendor to Company.
  4. Company may withhold payment to the Vendor of any tax invoice until certificates of currency have been received and confirmed in writing by Company.

Termination and suspension

  1. The delivery of goods or the provision of services may be suspended if any circumstances beyond the reasonable control of Company or of the Vendor prevent the manufacture, delivery or acceptance of the goods or provision of the services and either party provides notice to the other of suspension and details of the relevant circumstances. Shortage of labour or materials or failure or delays of the Vendor’s subcontractors will not constitute “circumstances beyond the reasonable control of the Vendor”. If any suspension continues for a period greater than six (6) weeks, either party may terminate this Agreement by notice in writing to the other party without liability except for any rights or obligations which may have accrued prior to that date.
  2. Subject to clause 29, without limiting any other rights, Company may terminate this Agreement without any liability to the Vendor if not performed within the time specified in the Purchase Order or, if no time is specified, within a reasonable time.
  3. Either party may immediately terminate this Agreement by notice in writing to the other party if the other party (a) breaches any term under this Agreement and such breach is not remedied within 14 days of notice being given to remedy the breach; (b) breaches any law relating to the supply of the goods or services; (c) becomes insolvent; or (d) is convicted of a criminal offence.
  4. Company may terminate this Agreement by giving 30 days’ written notice to the Vendor without cause, in which case Company shall reimburse the Vendor for (a) all work in progress or (b) work and expenses incurred up to the date of the notice of termination which cannot be reversed or mitigated by the Vendor applying best efforts.
  5. Unless expressly stated otherwise termination for any reason does not affect the rights of a party that arise before termination or as a consequence of the event or occurrence giving rise to the termination, or as a consequence of the breach of any obligation under this Agreement which survives termination and termination does not affect the rights a party may have under common law.

Intellectual Property

  1. Any plans, drawings, designs or information supplied by Company to the Vendor in connection with this Agreement remain the property of Company and any information delivered or otherwise communicated by Company to the Vendor in connection with this Agreement will be regarded by the Vendor as secret and confidential and must not, without the written consent of Company, be published or disclosed to any third party or used by the Vendor except in implementing this Agreement or if required by law.
  2. Any new invention, design, technique or literary work (including documents, reports, drawings and computer software) or any improvement to an existing patent made or developed by the Vendor during and for the purposes of this Agreement will be the property of Company and full details must be communicated immediately and assigned to Company. Company has the exclusive right and title to, and interest in, all rights conferred under statute, common law and equity including rights in all copyright, patents, trademarks, business names, trade names, domain names, designs, confidential information, trade secrets or know-how (Intellectual Property Rights), made or created in, or arising out of, the performance of this Agreement.


  1. The Vendor must keep this document and the terms and existence of this document confidential and unless required to do so by law, must not disclose it to any person or organisation or make any press release or announcement referring to Company without the prior written approval of Company.
  2. At the prior written request of Company acting reasonably, the Vendor will sign a confidentiality and non-disclosure agreement for the benefit of Company.

Other matters

  1. Company prefers (wherever possible) to provide local (Australian) suppliers with a full, fair and reasonable opportunity to supply equipment and materials. If equipment or materials are to be supplied by a subcontractor to the Vendor, then the Vendor must satisfy the terms of this clause in respect of the supply of such equipment or materials.
  2. Company may make applications for import duty concessions relating to items procured under this Agreement. The Vendor must provide whatever assistance and/or information including import details in a timely manner to assist in such applications as requested by Company. Where Company succeeds in applications, the Vendor may obtain duty funds as requested by Company and must remit the proceeds to Company. Where concessions are obtained prior to the importation of goods, and the Vendor is able to import the goods duty free, including under an AusIndustry Determination, the Vendor must pay an amount equal to the customs duty savings to Company.
  3. The Vendor undertakes and agrees that:
    1. it has taken reasonable steps to identify, assess and address risks of child labour, bonded labour, human trafficking, forced labour and other forms of modern slavery and slavery-like practices (Modern Slavery Practices) in the operations and supply chains used in the performance of this Agreement; and
    2. it is not currently aware of the use of any form of Modern Slavery Practices (either directly or through a third party supplier) in the performance of this Agreement, or if it is aware of the use of Modern Slavery Practices, it has disclosed this to the Company.
  4. Upon the request of the Company, the Vendor will provide information on:
    1. the Vendor’s steps to identify and assess risks of Modern Slavery Practices in the operations and supply chains used in the performance of this Agreement;
    2. the Vendor’s processes for addressing any Modern Slavery Practices of which it becomes aware in the operations and supply chains used in the performance of this Agreement;
    3. the content and timing of training for any officer, employee, contractor (including subcontractor) or agent of the Vendor (Personnel) about Modern Slavery Practices; and
    4. the processes for handling a complaint or grievance about Modern Slavery Practices that is consistent with the criteria set out in the United Nations’ Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations “Protect, Respect and Remedy Framework. (Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights) available to the Personnel (Grievance Mechanism).
  5. If at any time the Vendor suspects or becomes aware of Modern Slavery Practices in the operations and supply chains used in the performance of this Agreement, the Vendor must as soon as reasonably practicable:
    1. take all reasonable action to address or prevent these practices, including where relevant by addressing any practices of other entities in its supply chains;
    2. take all reasonable steps to remediate any adverse impacts caused or contributed by the Vendor from these Modern Slavery Practices, ensuring at all times that the welfare of victims is prioritised in accordance with the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights; and
    3. immediately disclose to the Company the Modern Slavery Practices and the response taken in accordance with subclauses 42(b) and (c) above.
  6. Without limiting clause 42, in performance of this Agreement, the Vendor must:
    1. not require Personnel to pay fees, charges, expenses or financial obligations incurred in order for the Personnel to secure their employment or placement (Recruitment Fees), regardless of the manner, timing or location of the imposition or collection of these Recruitment Fees;
    2. not destroy or exclusively possess, whether permanently or otherwise, the travel or identity documents of Personnel; and
    3. ensure Personnel can access a Grievance Mechanism to safely report any instances of Modern Slavery in the operations and supply chains used by the Vendor in its performance of this Agreement.

Governing law and laws of other jurisdictions

  1. The Vendor must comply with the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates, including those laws relating to anti bribery and corruption. The Vendor must maintain in place throughout the term of this Agreement policies and procedures to ensure compliance with such anti bribery and corruption laws (which policies and procedures must be disclosed to Company on request) and must comply with such policies and procedures at all times.
  2. This Agreement is governed by the laws of Western Australia. Each party irrevocably and unconditionally submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of Western Australia.

Terms & Conditions

This is the website terms and conditions (terms) for Minderoo Foundation Limited (ACN 651 422 141) as trustee for The Minderoo Foundation Trust (ABN 24 819 440 618), along with its related entities (referred to herein as we, us or our). Our related entities include Minderoo PBI Limited, International Health Philanthropy Limited, Minderoo Investments No 1 Pty Ltd and Minderoo Investments No 2 Pty Ltd.

Acceptable use

Prohibited conduct

In accessing and using this website you must not engage or attempt to engage in any activities that:

  • download (other than page caching) or modify this website or any portion of this website;
  • impersonate or falsely claim to represent a person or organisation;
  • are commercial, including selling, marketing, advertising or promoting goods or services;
  • frame this website without our express written permission;
  • post, link to, communicate or distribute any inappropriate, profane, defamatory, infringing, obscene, indecent or unlawful content, or otherwise use this website in a manner which is unlawful or would infringe the rights of another person (including any intellectual property rights);
  • provide access or links to any content (including links to peer to peer network trackers/beacons) which may infringe the intellectual property rights of another person;
  • bypass (or attempt to bypass) any security measures that we use in relation to this website;
  • delete or alter or attempt to delete or alter attributions, legal notices, trade marks or copyright marks on any content on this website; or
  • post or transmit or permit the posting or transmission of any content which contains a computer virus or other harmful data, code or material.

Saving, printing or sharing content

You may save a local copy or print a copy of any of the content on this website for your own personal, non-commercial use, provided you do not remove any copyright notices. For clarity, you must not use the content for any non-personal or commercial use, including the sharing of the content with others (whether via another website or otherwise) or charging any third parties to use or access the content.

Linking to this website

You are welcome to link to this website, provided that in doing so:

  • you do not use any of our trade marks without our permission or use any other trade mark which appears on this website without the permission of the owner of that trade mark; and
  • you do not link to this website from a website or in a manner which disparages or may disparage our reputation, or the reputation of our commercial partners, customers, suppliers or advertisers.

Other uses

Please contact us if you would like to use content from this website in a manner other than as set out above, as we will need to consider your proposed use and decide whether to provide our written permission to you.

Third party content, products and services

Some of the content on this website has been obtained from third parties who have licensed us to use that content. The inclusion of such content on this website is not an endorsement of any organisation, product, service or advice.

This website may include links to third party websites (including Facebook, Twitter and other social media platforms). These websites are not covered by these terms and may have their own terms and conditions and privacy policy (third party terms). If you choose to access these websites, you do so at your own risk and subject to the applicable third party terms. We have not reviewed all of these websites and are not responsible for (and will not be liable in respect of) their content or accuracy or how they treat your personal information. Our linking to these websites is not an endorsement of the website or of any organisation, product, service or advice.

Intellectual property

This website contains copyright, trade marks and other forms of intellectual property (intellectual property) owned or licensed by us. All rights in relation to such intellectual property are reserved. Except where we otherwise agree in writing, you must not use such intellectual property, including by copying, framing, modifying, transmitting or distributing the intellectual property.


Please refer to our privacy policy for information on how we collect, use, store and manage personal information, and your rights in relation to such personal information, available on this website. By using this website, you acknowledge our privacy policy (as amended from time to time).

Cookies and analytics

What we know about you from visiting this website

When you visit this website, our web server automatically records some general information about your visit. This information includes your server address, the date and time of the access, the pages accessed and documents downloaded, the previous website visited, and the type of browser used. We may use this information, or make the information available to third parties, for the purpose of analysing website traffic and improving our website and general business.

This website uses cookies, which are widely used to make websites work and to improve their functionality. Disabling cookies should not affect your overall website experience. We do not collect or store personal information in any cookies originating from this website. However, Facebook and Google provide third party analytical services to us in respect of this website. A summary of how we use third party services and links is set out below, together with information provided by those third parties as to their services and options to opt out.

Google tools

This website uses:

  • Google Analytics: a service which transmits website traffic data to Google servers in the United States. We use reports provided by Google Analytics to help us understand website traffic and webpage usage; and
  • Google remarketing technology: a service which allows Google to display relevant content based on the pages on this website you have viewed. The content will be displayed using cookies. These cookies do not record any personal information or identify you personally.

By using this website, you consent to Google processing data about you for the purposes set out and in the manner described in Google’s data protection policy (which can be accessed here: To opt out of Google Analytics you should disable or refuse the cookie, disable JavaScript, or use the opt out service provided by Google here:

Facebook tools

We may use Facebook Advertising, Facebook Pixel Re-Marketing and other Facebook tools. These tools allow us to understand and deliver content and make it more relevant to you. The collected data remains anonymous and we cannot see the personal data of any individual user.

However, the collected data is saved and processed by Facebook. Facebook may be able to connect the data with your Facebook account and use the data for their own advertising purposes, as set out in Facebook’s Data Use Policy (which can be accessed here: opt-out of Facebook’s use of cookies and Facebook Pixel Re-Marketing, you should use the settings on your Facebook account.

Other social media

We also use interfaces with social media websites, including Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter. If you choose to “like” or “share” information from this website through these services, you should review the privacy policy of that service. If you are a member of a social media website, the interfaces may allow the social media website to connect your visits to this website with other personal information.

Disclaimers and exclusions

General exclusions

The content on this website is made available for general information purposes only and does not constitute professional advice or recommendations. Any use of (or reliance on) such content is at your own risk. You should not use such content as a substitute for consulting with qualified professionals as to your particular circumstances and needs.

We do not warrant the accuracy, adequacy, reliability or completeness of the content on this website and expressly disclaim liability for defects, errors or omissions in such content.

To the fullest extent permitted by law, we disclaim all representations, warranties, conditions and guarantees (whether express or implied) in relation to this website and its content, including under legislation, common law, equity, trade, custom or usage. We do not offer any warranties or make any representations in relation to any third party goods or services described or referred to on this website.

Access and communication

We do not warrant that you will have continuous access to this website and will not be liable if this website is unavailable to you for any reason. We do not provide, and have no control over, communications, networks or services, the internet or other technology required or used across this website and accept no responsibility for any loss or damage associated with them, whether due to congestion, technical malfunction, viruses or otherwise. While we take reasonable precautions to protect information transmitted via this website, we cannot and do not guarantee the security or confidentiality of these communications or the security of this website.

International use

If you choose to access this website from any location outside Australia, you do so at your own risk and are responsible for compliance with all applicable laws. You are not authorised to access this website from any location where doing so would be illegal.

Exclusion and limitation of liability

General exclusion

To the fullest extent permitted by law, we exclude all liability for losses, damages and claims arising out of or in connection with this website (including any use of or reliance on the content on this website), these terms or any supply of goods or services pursuant to these terms, including liability in respect of any breach of contract, tort (including negligence) or any other common law, statutory or other action.

Consequential loss

To the fullest extent permitted by law, we exclude all liability to you for any indirect, incidental, special or consequential loss or damage, loss of profits or anticipated profits, economic loss, loss of business opportunity, loss of data, loss of reputation or loss of revenue (irrespective of whether the loss or damage is caused by or relates to breach of contract, tort (including negligence), statute or otherwise) arising out of or in connection with this website (including any of the content on this website), any links to or from this website or the goods and/or services advertised, referred to on or supplied pursuant to this website.

Consumer guarantees

Nothing in these terms excludes, restricts or modifies any consumer guarantee, right or remedy (guarantee) you may have under the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) or any other applicable law that cannot be excluded, restricted or modified. To the fullest extent permitted by law, our liability for a breach of such a guarantee is limited, at our option, to:

  • in the case of goods supplied or offered by us: (i) the replacement of the goods or the supply of equivalent goods; (ii) the repair of the goods; (iii) the payment of the cost of replacing the goods or of acquiring equivalent goods; or (iv) the payment of the cost of having the goods repaired; or
  • in the case of services supplied or offered by us: (i) the supplying of the services again; or (ii) the payment of the cost of having the services supplied again.

Termination of your access to this website

We may at any time immediately terminate your access (including restricting access) to this website or any feature of this website for any reason (including due to your breach or alleged breach of these terms) in our sole discretion and without prior notice.

General terms

These terms are governed by and must be construed in accordance with the laws of the State of Western Australia, Australia. You submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of that State and the Commonwealth of Australia in respect of all matters arising out of or relating to these terms, their performance and subject matter.

Each provision of these terms is severable from the others and no severance of a provision will affect any other provision.

Questions, feedback and complaints

If you have any questions, feedback or complaints in relation to this website, then please contact us. We welcome your feedback and will endeavour to respond to you (where a response is required) in a prompt manner.

+61 8 6460 4949
PO Box 3155, Broadway Nedlands, WA 6009

These Terms and Conditions were last updated in February 2023.

Privacy Policy

You can read the full details of our privacy policy below. As a quick summary:

  • If we ask for your personal information, we only ask for personal information that we need.
  • If you give us your personal information, we will treat it in accordance with our privacy policy.

Who we are

This is the privacy policy for Minderoo Foundation Limited (ACN 651 422 141) as trustee for The Minderoo Foundation Trust (ABN 24 819 440 618) of PO Box 3155 Broadway, Nedlands WA 6009, along with its related entities (referred to herein as we, us or our). Our related entities include Minderoo PBI Limited, International Health Philanthropy Limited, Minderoo Investments No 1 Pty Ltd and Minderoo Investments No 2 Pty Ltd.

This privacy policy sets out how we collect, use, disclose and manage your personal information.

Our commitment to privacy

We are committed to protecting the privacy of your personal information. We work to ensure that we comply with the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth) (Privacy Act), including the Australian Privacy Principles under the Privacy Act, and any other applicable privacy laws. If you are resident in the European Economic Area (EEA) or the United Kingdom (UK), applicable privacy laws include the EU General Data Protection Regulation and the UK General Data Protection Regulation respectively.

Collecting personal information

How we collect personal information

Personal Information is information or an opinion that identifies an individual. This can include names, addresses, email addresses, phone and phone numbers.

Sensitive information is a type of personal information that includes information about an individual’s racial or ethnic origin, professional, political or religious affiliations or memberships, sexual orientation or practices, criminal record, health, genetics and/or biometrics.

At all times we try to collect directly from you only the personal information we reasonably need for the particular function or activity we are carrying out. This can include when you visit our website, contact us, make a booking with us, submit a booking enquiry to us, raise a query or complaint with us, sign up to one of our mailing lists, apply for a job with us (as further described below), contract with us or otherwise interact with us.

We may also collect your personal information (including sensitive information) that we reasonably need from third parties, including government agencies, regulators, commercial counterparties and third party service providers (including credit reporting, recruitment or information agencies), and from publicly available records when handling or resolving a complaint, investigation (including investigating a data breach) or otherwise performing any particular function or activity we are carrying out.

The types of personal information we collect

Depending on the nature of our relationship and interactions with you, we may collect a range of personal information. This includes your name, contact details (including your address, email address and phone number), date of birth, gender, nationality, organisation and IP address. If you attend one of our events, we may also take audio or visual recordings which identify you.

On occasion, we may collect information about you of a sensitive nature (such as information about your health). However, we will only do this with your consent or otherwise in accordance with applicable laws.

If you apply for a career with us

We also collect personal information when recruiting people to work with us. This may include the types of information listed above, along with your qualifications, work history and reference details. Before offering you a position, we may collect additional details such as your tax file number, superannuation information and other background check information (such as police clearances and working with children checks, to the extent required or permitted by applicable laws).

Generally, we will collect this information directly from you. We may also collect this information from third parties (such as recruitment agencies, background check agencies or your referees).

Why we collect personal information

The purposes for which we collect your personal information depend on the nature of our relationship and interactions with you. These purposes may include:

  • undertaking charitable activities;
  • providing services to you or facilitating the provision of services to you by others;
  • responding to your requests for information, complaints and other enquiries;
  • marketing, including by informing you of activities, events and developments (as further described below);
  • complying with our contractual, legal or regulatory obligations or exercising our legal rights;
  • monitoring, analysing or improving our business, services or website;
  • facilitating our recruitment processes; and
  • managing our relationship or interactions with you.

Legal bases for processing personal information if resident in the EEA or UK

We process your personal information where it is in our legitimate interests to do so. We believe that our use of your personal information is within a number of our legitimate interests, including the purposes listed above under the heading ‘why we collect personal information’.

We may also process your sensitive personal information where it is in the course of our activities as a not-for-profit body, or where processing your sensitive personal information is necessary for us to exercise our rights or carry out our employment and social security law obligations.

Cookies and analytics

We use cookies and analytics (including Google tools) in relation to your use of our websites. Please refer to our website terms for more information in relation to this, including in relation to the personal information that we may collect by using such cookies and analytics.

Anonymous dealings

You may choose to remain anonymous or use a pseudonym in your communications with us where it is lawful and practicable. However, if you choose to do so, please note that we may not be able to provide you with information or goods and services, or effectively manage our relationship with you.

Storing personal information

We endeavour to take reasonable steps to protect your personal information from misuse, interference and loss and from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure. We also endeavour to take reasonable steps to destroy or de-identify personal information that we no longer require.

We maintain physical security over paper and electronic data stores, including through the use of locks and security systems at our premises. We also maintain computer and network security such as firewalls to protect your personal information and to control access to our computer systems.

We secure communications between your browser and this website with encryption technology wherever possible. We also encourage you to exercise care in sending personal information via the internet.

Using and disclosing personal information

General use and disclosure

We may use and disclose your personal information for our legitimate business purposes, including for the purposes set out above in relation to our collection of personal information. For example, we may disclose your personal information to:

  • our internal divisions, business units, departments, related entities or affiliates;
  • third parties who work with us (including those who assist us in providing goods and services to you on our behalf);
  • our representatives, agents or contractors who assist us in administering our business (including for data storage or processing, printing, mailing, marketing, planning, research and good or service development) or provide services to us;
  • our advisors (including lawyers and accountants), insurers, auditors and financiers;
  • other parties when required by law, such as law enforcement entities or regulators;
  • potential investors in, or purchasers of, any part of our business; and
  • Recruitment firms and recruitment service providers.

We do not share your personal information except in accordance with this privacy policy or as permitted by the Privacy Act or other applicable privacy laws.

To additional protect your personal information when disclosing it to third parties, we also include special privacy provisions in our contracts and engagements.


We may use the personal information you provide to us to send information to you, including polls and promotional material about us (and our various entities, goods and services) and the goods and services of relevant third parties. We may send you such information by direct mail, telemarketing, email, SMS, MMS or other similar means.

If you do not want to receive marketing or any other promotional material from us, you can unsubscribe by emailing us (see email contact below) or by clicking on the “unsubscribe” link in an automated mailout that you have received from us.

Overseas disclosures

We may disclose, transfer, store, process or use your personal information outside of your country of residence (or where you are resident in the European Economic Area (EEA), outside of the EEA). This may happen if our related entities, employees, contractors or third parties we engage with are located overseas, including in the United States of America and the United Kingdom.

For residents in the EEA and United Kingdom (UK), we may transfer your personal information outside of the EEA and UK provided that the means of transfer provides adequate safeguards in relation to your data, including in accordance with any applicable laws.

Accessing and correction of personal information

If you would like to access any of the personal information we hold about you, please email us (see email contact below). We will endeavour to provide access promptly and free of charge. However, we may refuse to provide access, or may charge a fee for compiling the requested information, if it is lawful for us to do so. If we refuse a request for information, or decide to charge such a fee, we will provide you with a reason for our decision as required by applicable privacy laws.

Please let us know if there are any errors or discrepancies in the personal information we hold about you or if your details have changed. We will take reasonable steps to correct, update and/or delete this information in accordance with applicable privacy laws following your request. Please note, if you choose to update and/or delete the personal information we hold about you, we may not be able to provide you with requested information, products or services, or to effectively conduct our relationship with you.

If you are resident in the EEA or the UK

In addition to the above right of access and right of rectification, you may also have other rights in relation to the personal information we hold about you. These include the right to object to, or restrict our processing of, your personal information, the right to request that we erase your personal information, and the right to transfer your personal information between service providers.

However, please note that some of these rights may not always apply to the personal information we hold about you as there are sometimes requirements and exemptions which mean we need to keep the personal information, or other times when the rights may not apply at all.

How long do we keep your personal information?

When your personal information is no longer needed for the purpose for which it was obtained, we will take reasonable steps to destroy or permanently de-identify your personal information (including sensitive information). When determining the appropriate retention period, we consider the risks of the processing, our contractual, legal and regulatory obligations, and our legitimate interests as described in this privacy policy.

Enquiries and complaints

You can contact us at any time if you have any questions or concerns about this privacy policy or the way in which your personal information has been handled, or if you have a privacy complaint, by emailing us at

We will consider your questions, concerns and complaints to work out what steps can be taken in response. If you make a complaint which requires detailed consideration or investigation, we may ask you to give us more information about your complaint and the outcome you are seeking. We may need to gather relevant facts, locate and review relevant documents and speak with other people involved. In any event, we will endeavour to provide you with a response within 30 days.

If you are not satisfied with an outcome following the above process, you may wish to contact the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner at:

If you are resident in the EEA or UK

  • 1300 363 992

You may contact us for further information via the above email address. Alternatively, you may contact our representative in the EU and the UK for the purposes of this privacy policy, which is Stichting EU Minderoo (KVK 80314368).

You also have the right to make a complaint to your local data protection authority, which in the UK is the Information Commissioner’s Office ( The authorities for EU Member States are listed (along with contact details) on the European Commission website here.

Updates to this privacy policy

We may amend this privacy policy from time to time, with or without notice to you. We recommend that you check this page regularly and each time you visit this website.

This privacy policy was last updated in February 2023.


Blueback can inspire people to help make our oceans flourish again.

Minderoo Foundation is proud to be the education partner for the film adaption of Tim Winton's best-selling novella Blueback.

Atom Study Guide Lesson Modules

To help educators dive deeper into the film we have worked with and ATOM to create education resources for the film.

Do you want to know more about education resources for the film or to be notified when it is available for streaming or on DVD?

You can now watch Blueback at home. Click here for more information on how you can rent or buy the film.

Blueback Trailer

In cinemas: Blueback opens in cinemas across Australia on 1 January 2023
Streaming services: Coming in 2023

Our Oceans

Film director Robert Connolly, author Tim Winton and actress Mia Wasikowska discuss Blueback and its message of protecting our oceans.

United Nations Plastic Treaty

The UN Treaty on Plastic Pollution

“Every minute, the equivalent of two truckloads of plastic enters our oceans. It’s time for change.”[1]

Plastic is polluting people and planet

Plastic is everywhere: in our packaging, our body washes and our everyday items. It’s versatile, cheap and convenient. But this convenience has a hidden cost.

Of the more than eight billion tonnes of plastic produced since large-scale production of the fossil-fuel-based material began in the 1950s [2], less than 10 per cent has been recycled, meaning more than 90 per cent has been landfilled, incinerated or survives to this day to leak into the environment. With production set to treble over the next decade, we will be drowning in 25 billion tonnes of plastic waste by 2060 [3].

The waste issue is just the tip of the iceberg. Toxic chemicals used in plastic production and across the material’s lifecycle pose risks to our climate and health. These harmful substances, leaching from plastics, contaminate our water, food and air. Our latest research indicates these toxins increase the risk of miscarriage, cardiovascular disease, cancer and other major health concerns.

A woman snorkelling among plastic debris in the ocean

A unique opportunity
to end plastic pollution

Recognising the urgency of the situation, the United Nations initiated the Treaty on Plastic Pollution. The plastic problem is now acknowledged by 193 United Nations Member States which are negotiating a legally binding treaty to combat plastic pollution. The third session of these negotiations (INC-3) is set for 13 – 19 November 2023 at the UNEP Headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya.

History has shown us that effecting change at the country level is challenging. Plastic doesn’t respect borders and doesn’t easily degrade. That’s why a united front is essential. This treaty presents a unique opportunity for humanity and our world to harmonise efforts to create a future free from plastic harm.

A scientist in a lab looking through a microscope

We advocate for the treaty to:

  1. limit fossil-fuel plastic production and consumption
  2. support the transition to a safe and just circular economy for plastics, ensuring products are designed for circularity
  3. eliminate problematic and harmful substances and materials
  4. prevent plastic leakage throughout its life cycle with sound waste management
  5. align all public and private financial flows with the treaty’s objectives, eliminating harmful flows and bolstering a safe and just circular plastics economy.

What can you do?

Every voice counts. Support our cause. Spread the word. Share now.

link to twitter link to instagram link to facebook link to linkedin



2. MacLeod M, Arp HPH, Tekman MB, Jahnke A. The global threat from plastic pollution. Science. 2021; 373(6550): 61–65. DOI:

3. Geyer R, Jambeck JR, Law KL. Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made. Sci Adv. 2017; 3(7): e170078. DOI:<

The Plastic Pollution Fee: Design Study

Outlining the options ahead of INC-3.

Prompted by the high and rapidly increasing levels of plastic pollution, the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) initiated the negotiation of an international legally binding instrument to end plastic pollution, including in the marine environment.

Ahead of the meeting of the third International Negotiation Committee (INC-3) in November, the Chair of the INC published a “Zero Draft” of the Instrument, including options for provisions to tackle plastic pollution at every step of the life cycle.

This paper explores a pivotal element of the Zero Draft—a proposed mandatory, global fee on plastic polymer producers (the “Plastic Pollution Fee”)—envisioned as an innovative source of financing for the implementation of the instrument, notably in developing countries. The Zero Draft also proposes provisions for fees as an example of an economic instrument that can support possible control measures.

This Design Study explores design options and technical aspects of the Plastic Pollution Fee to support and inform subsequent intergovernmental dialogues. It precedes a comprehensive Impact Study, which will model the Plastic Pollution Fee's potential environmental, social and socio impacts.

Aim and Scope of This Paper:

  • outlining the design options and technical considerations for the Plastic Pollution Fee
  • examining the Plastic Pollution Fee's relationship with other control measures included in the Zero Draft
  • outlining the proposed approach and scenarios for modelling the Plastic Pollution Fee’s potential environmental, social and economic impacts
  • responses to this preliminary paper will inform a white paper before INC-4.

Collaboration with Analytical Partners and Advisors:

  • collaboration with experts in international law and trade, policymaking economics, and modelling experts for a well-rounded analysis
  • an Advisory Group and an Expert Panel of seasoned professionals oversee this study's scope, methodology and outcomes.
Case StudyGlobal Fishing Index

Big Data transforming small-scale fisheries: A new reporting system in Timor-Leste

By Dr Alex Tilley, WorldFish

It is safe to say that with better information, you can make better decisions – and that is particularly true of the world’s small-scale fisheries. This sector provides vital food and livelihoods for billions of people, yet very little information exists on where the millions of fishers go or what they catch. If the sector is to be sustainably and equitably managed, good data are crucial.

PeskAAS is a digital reporting system that collects, analyses and displays data from small-scale fisheries in Timor-Leste in near real time [1]. It was designed in collaboration with fishers and government officials to support science-based decision making, which is critical to local food security.

The name PeskAAS comes from the word for fisheries (peskas) in Tetum, the national language of Timor-Leste, combined with Automated Analytics System (AAS).

Central to the system was the fitting of 500 fishing vessels with solar-powered tracking devices, which recorded where fishers went and how long they spent at different fishing sites. Upon landing, the fishers are met by trained community members, who record their catches using smartphones and tablets. The data are then uploaded and published on an online, open-access dashboard the same day.

The results have had a huge impact on fisheries management and led to Timor-Leste reporting an accurate estimate of the national catch to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 2020, the first since 2001. Program findings contributed to the drafting of a new national fisheries strategy and revisions to the country’s fisheries law in 2019. The same year, the Timorese government officially adopted PeskAAS, placing it among the most sophisticated national monitoring systems for small-scale fisheries in the world.

This system has brought new insights into fishing patterns, the effects of fishing methods on production levels, and the lives of those who depend on fishing in the country. It has also supported a deeper understanding of the health of the country’s marine ecosystems and what might constitute sustainable levels of catch.

The challenges associated with the project were substantial: the work spans the country’s 25 dialects, with the names of fish species often varying from one fishing community to another. Literacy is low in fishing communities, meaning that it was challenging to describe the advantages of such a system to potential participants.

To overcome this issue, we approached the communities one-by-one and held discussions with them in partnership with the Department of Fisheries – as a result, we were able to gain a better understanding of the fishers’ needs, and show how such a tool could help them. Involving fishers in the design of PeskAAS highlighted the need and mechanism for frequent feedback via municipal fisheries officers, which also helped establish local acceptance.

As a result, the vast majority of fishers were happy to share information about where they fished, what they caught, and their earnings. They were also happy for the tracking devices to be installed on their boats.

We also worked hard to ensure the National Fisheries Directorate were involved. When the project started, the work of the Directorate was limited mainly to administrative tasks, such as the registration of fishing boats. There was limited understanding of the opportunities for better fisheries management and very little useful data. The team spent time explaining the importance of robust, reliable data, and how it could support national priorities on tackling food insecurity and improving nutrition.

Through these discussions, it quickly became clear that estimates of fish production in the country were based on little more than the number of registered fishing vessels. It meant that one of the early successes of PeskAAS was in providing a more accurate estimate of the national catch. This, in turn, provided decision makers with a clearer idea of what needed to be done to meet targets for national fish consumption, and how the gap could be plugged by the country’s nascent aquaculture sector.

PeskAAS continues to evolve in Timor-Leste, with a particular focus on improving fisher involvement and use. Our next goal, in response to feedback from local fishers, is to develop a personalised ‘fisher module’ that will provide fishers with a way of tracking their own activities – for example, providing a platform for them to log expenditure on inputs like ice, bait and fuel, as a way of better understanding profit margins, checking market prices for different fish species, and monitoring earnings. This project is already underway in Malaysia, prior to deployment at other sites.

PeskAAS is open source and was designed to be highly adaptable to new geographies and fisheries contexts – pilot studies are already underway in Asia and Africa. The team hopes this work will bring new understanding to small-scale fisheries globally and support a range of co-management options.

We hope to expand PeskAAS to include fish traders and consumers, and more informal and poorly documented fisheries such as gleaning, both of which tend to be dominated by women but for which very little data currently exists [2]. These advances aim to empower fishers to make more informed decisions about where, what, and when to fish, while supporting the co-management of fisheries in partnership with government.

This work is led by WorldFish and Timor-Leste’s Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. It is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Fish Agri-Food Systems (FISH). The pilot project in Timor-Leste was funded by The Royal Norwegian Embassy in Jakarta, and developed further under two Inspire Challenge awards from the CGIAR Platform for Big Data in Agriculture, in partnership with Pelagic Data Systems.


1. Tilley, A., Dos Reis Lopes, J. and Wilkinson, S.P. (2020). PeskAAS: A near-real-time, open-source monitoring and analytics system for small-scale fisheries, PLOS ONE 15, (11), p. e0234760, [10 November 2021]

2. Tilley, A., Burgos, A., Duarte, A., dos Reis Lopes, J., Eriksson, H. and Mills, D. (2021). Contribution of women’s fisheries substantial, but overlooked, in Timor-Leste, AMBIO 50, (1), pp. 113-124, [10 November 2021]


Alexander Tilley

Senior Scientist, WorldFish

Alex Tilley’s research focuses on understanding how better data can lead to improved food systems and livelihoods in aquatic systems developing and testing digital reporting systems and automatic analytics to obtain reliable near-real time data for adaptive management and empowerment of small-scale fishers in the blue economy. Alex has been engaged in small-scale fisheries and marine research since 2006 in Mozambique, Belize, Turks & Caicos Islands, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Myanmar, Cambodia and Timor-Leste. He joined WorldFish in early 2016 following a two-year postdoctoral fellowship with the Smithsonian Institution. He has a PhD in Marine Biology from Bangor University based on fish movement and trophic ecology.

Case StudyGlobal Fishing Index

Illuminating the world’s ‘dark fleets’

By David Kroodsma, Global Fishing Watch

Historically, what happens over the horizon in the ocean has largely been unmonitored. This obscurity has given illegal fishers uncontrolled access to offshore waters, with as much as one in every four fish thought to be caught through illegal, unreported or unregulated fishing [1].

Recent advances in vessel-tracking technology have helped illuminate the activity of industrial vessels at sea. Many countries now require large vessels to broadcast their positions via an automatic identification system (AIS) or vessel monitoring systems (VMS). As a result, most fishing vessels larger than 24 metres can now be tracked with relative ease [2].

The problem? Vessels trying to avoid oversight can simply turn their AIS off and ‘go dark’ – remaining hidden from surveillance systems.

But dark fleets are not completely invisible.

Optical imagery allows us to take pictures of these vessels from space using high-resolution cameras and radar (Figure 1). In the last ten years, literally hundreds of satellites have been launched that can image the ocean. With help from machine learning and big data processing, our ability to find dark fleets is rapidly improving.

The waters off North Korea provide a gripping example.

In 2017, the United Nations Security Council responded to missile tests by banning all countries from fishing in North Korea’s waters. Despite this, South Korean authorities reported hundreds of vessels passing through on their way into North Korean waters. Few of these vessels broadcasted their GPS positions through conventional tracking technology.

But these ‘dark fleets’ could only stay hidden for so long. In July of 2020, a team of researchers led by Global Fishing Watch and including scientists from Japan, South Korea, Australia and the United States, revealed that over 900 vessels originating from China were active in North Korean waters – a discovery made possible by combining AIS data and satellite imagery (Figure 2). It’s estimated that between 2017 and 2019, these vessels caught more than half a billion dollars’ worth of squid – making this the largest known case of illegal fishing by vessels originating from one country, operating in another country’s waters (i.e. foreign fishing) [3].

Figure 1: Detecting dark fleets using satellite technology. Estimating the size of the fishing fleet operating in North Korean waters was made possible through the combination of four different technologies: the automatic identification system data, optical imagery, low light imaging data using the visible infrared imaging radiometer suite, or VIIRS, and satellite radar. ©Global Fishing Watch
Figure 1: Detecting dark fleets using satellite technology. Estimating the size of the fishing fleet operating in North Korean waters was made possible through the combination of four different technologies: the automatic identification system data, optical imagery, low light imaging data using the visible infrared imaging radiometer suite, or VIIRS, and satellite radar. ©Global Fishing Watch

Global Fishing Watch is now applying the same method to monitor dark fleets globally. Around the world, hundreds of thousands of large and medium-sized fishing vessels are placing their hooks and nets without broadcasting their location, either to avoid regulations or, more often than not, because they are not required to do so. By using years of satellite imagery collected from the European Space Agency, it is now possible to count and identify these dark fleets. Further, by assessing where these vessels are detected, we can model which are likely to be fishing – and, more importantly, which may be fishing illegally.

While radar and optical imagery data may help reveal the true extent of fishing activity globally, these tools do have their limitations. Satellite’s cannot take pictures of the entire ocean, and where available, imagery may be infrequent due to the satellite’s orbit. Additionally, distinguishing fishing boats from other types of vessels remains a challenge, especially in areas of high vessel traffic like east Asia and the Persian Gulf – although Global Fishing Watch’s research shows that vessels operating on the continental shelf and positioned far from shipping lanes or oil-producing regions, are often fishing vessels.

Despite these limitations, these new technologies have the power to transform how we monitor industrial fishing – by making the unseen, seen. Around the world, there are fleets like the one in North Korea, operating with little oversight and depleting fish stocks.

By combining innovative satellite imagery with existing vessel tracking data and the knowledge from fisheries agencies around the globe, vast swaths of the ocean will no longer be dark. By making invisible operations visible, we can improve fisheries management, reduce pressure on legal fishers, and help secure a more sustainable future for the ocean.


1. Agnew, D.J., Pearce, J., Pramod, G., Peatman, T., Watson, R., Beddington, J.R. and Pitcher, T.J. (2009). Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing, PLOS ONE 4, (2), p. e4570,

2. Kroodsma, D., Mayorga, J., Hochberg, T., Miller, N.A., Boerder, K., Ferretti, F., Wilson, A., Bergman, B., White, T.D., Block, B.A., Woods, P., Sullivan, B., Costello, C. and Worm, B. (2018). Tracking the global footprint of fisheries, Science 359, (6378), pp. 904-908, [15 March 2020]

3. Park, J., Lee, J., Seto, K., Hochberg, T., Wong, B.A., Miller, N.A., Takasaki, K., Kubota, H., Oozeki, Y., Doshi, S., Midzik, M., Hanich, Q., Sullivan, B., Woods, P. and Kroodsma, D.A. (2020). Illuminating dark fishing fleets in North Korea, Science Advances 6, (30), p. eabb1197, [10 November 2021]


David Kroodsma

Director of Research and Innovation, Global Fishing Watch

David Kroodsma leads Global Fishing Watch’s Research Program, which is a collaboration between Global Fishing Watch and a network of over 10 research institutions. He is responsible for leading and facilitating new research projects, and he works with the GFW engineering team to develop new technologies. David has over a decade and a half of experience working with NGOs and researchers to address global environmental challenges. He has a B.S. in physics and an M.S. in earth systems science from Stanford University.

Case StudyGlobal Fishing Index

Eliminating harmful fishing subsidies: Lesson form regional trade agreements

By University Killam Professor U. Rashid Sumaila, Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Harmful subsidies are a major driver of overfishing globally – they help build more boats and provide access to cheaper fuel, enabling fishers to travel farther and catch more fish. Unsurprisingly, there have been many attempts to remove these harmful subsidies, including the 2010 Aichi Biodiversity target 3 and the 2015 United Nation’s Sustainability Development Goals, target 14.6.

Since 2001, the 160 or so countries that form the World Trade Organization (WTO) have tried to negotiate an international, legally-binding agreement that eliminates harmful fishing subsidies. Yet, twenty years on, this effort continues [1].

So, the question remains – what is preventing an agreement from being reached?

One of the key challenges faced by the WTO is negotiating “special and differential treatment” for developing and least developed countries (LDC). Special and differential treatments are an important component of all WTO agreements as they support developing countries and LDCs with capacity-building and ensure that the required technical support to enable the full implementation of WTO agreements is available.

Some believe that developing countries and LDCs should be exempt from any new restrictions on harmful fisheries subsidies, as they are considered necessary for alleviating poverty and enabling developing countries to compete with large fishing countries. In reality, however, harmful subsidies are not effective for competing with large fishing nations and can worsen poverty in the medium to long term [2].

Additionally, WTO members continue to disagree over how to define a country’s eligibility for such exemptions. Several fishing entities, including the European Union and the United States, strongly oppose the inclusion of terms in the WTO agreement that state that any developing country is exempt from removing harmful subsidies, regardless of their contribution to global fisheries subsidies. On the other hand, China – one of the largest contributors to global fisheries subsidies – opposes this view and wishes to be included under such exemptions.

So, if the WTO is unable to come to an agreement, what are the alternatives?

One promising approach has come through regional trade agreements that include reasonably strong commitments to eliminating harmful subsidies – the 2018 Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) and the 2020 United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).

Despite being ‘simply’ trade agreements, the CPTTP and the USMCA have started to drive advances in ocean sustainability. Member nations are required to use science-based management systems to prevent overfishing and overcapacity. They must implement port controls to combat illegal fishing and prohibit the provision of subsidies for vessels engaged in illegal fishing or that further threaten overfished stocks.

At face value, trade agreements may seem like an unusual avenue for saving the planet. But they increasingly require all members to align their national environmental legislations with ‘best practice’, in exchange for market access between member states – not necessarily for the health of the planet, but because unequal policies create an unequal economic playing field, giving countries with less effective governance a competitive advantage [3]. Both the CPTPP and the USMCA have extensive and binding environmental standards that countries negotiate and commit to as part of the deal.

These trade agreements also offer an enviable approach to transparency and cooperation. Both agreements outline that all laws, regulations, procedures and administrative rulings must be made publicly available, so anyone can comment on them [4]. Operationalising such open transparency comes with its challenges, however it remains a core provision of both agreements. The CPTPP also places emphasis on cooperation between its members to identify areas where further support is required to ensure all its provisions are implemented successfully.

Together, the twelve countries that have signed up to the CPTTP and the USMCA – including Australia, Japan, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and the United States – account for 22 per cent of global fishing subsidies, or almost US$4,912 million annually [5]. These two agreements alone mean we are well on the way to tackling a considerable proportion of the problem.

The recently appointed Director-General of the WTO, Dr. Okonjo-Iweala – the first female and first African in the role – noted that “there is an increasing loss of confidence in the ability of the WTO to produce results,” and that there is a need for the WTO to change their approach “from debate and rounds of questions to delivering results” in order to achieve success. On July 15, 2021, Dr Okonjo-Iweala secured members commitment to a draft text as a basis for negotiations, raising hopes that a final deal can be struck this year.

The success of these agreements sends an important message to WTO negotiators ahead of the next critical Ministerial Conference from 30 November to 3 December 2021 – reaching an agreement on harmful subsidies is indeed possible. However, the twelve countries that make up these agreements recognise that without an overarching international agreement to manage the one global ocean, their efforts may not amount to much [6]. Success at an international level is critical for transforming our ocean.


1. World Trade Organization (2021). WTO members hold February cluster of meetings for fisheries subsidies negotiations. [5 March 2021]

2. Cisneros-Montemayor, A.M. and Sumaila, U.R. (2019). Busting myths that hinder an agreement to end harmful fisheries subsidies, Marine Policy 109, p. 103699, [6 October 2020]

3. George, C. (2014). Environment and Regional Trade Agreements: Emerging Trends and Policy Drivers, OECD Trade and Environment Working Papers, pp. 1-29. [22 February 2021]

4. Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (2021). Outcomes: Transparency. [22 February 2021]

5. Sumaila, U.R., Ebrahim, N., Schuhbauer, A., Skerritt, D., Li, Y., Kim, H.S., Mallory, T.G., Lam, V.W.L. and Pauly, D. (2019). Updated estimates and analysis of global fisheries subsidies, Marine Policy 109, [6 October 2020]

6. Sumaila, U.R. and Pauly, D. (2007). All fishing nations must unite to cut subsidies, Nature 450, p. 945, [20 March 2020]


Rashid Sumaila

Professor and Canada Research Chair (Tier 1) in Interdisciplinary Ocean and Fisheries Economics at the Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, and the School of Public Policy and Global Affairs, University of British Columbia

Rashid Sumaila’s research focuses on bioeconomics, marine ecosystem valuation and the analysis of global issues such as fisheries subsidies, marine protected areas, illegal fishing, climate change, marine plastic pollution, and oil spills. Rashid has experience working in fisheries and natural resource projects in Norway, Canada and the North Atlantic region, Namibia and the Southern African region, Ghana and the West African region and Hong Kong and the South China Sea. Dr. Sumaila received his Ph.D. (Economics) from the University of Bergen and his B.Sc. (Quantity Surveying) from the Ahmadu Bello University. He won the 2017 Volvo Environment Prize and was named a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 2019.

Case StudyGlobal Fishing Index

Fisheries management works - When we do it right

By Professor Ray Hilborn, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington

Concerns about overfishing have existed for more than a century. But it is only relatively recently that intensive fisheries management – in some form or other – has become commonplace and effective. Today, most developed countries conduct scientific research on their fish stocks and ecosystems, restrict catch or fishing effort based on trends in stock health and have an enforcement system to make sure that regulations are obeyed. We consider these elements essential to modern fisheries management – but, with few exceptions, these elements were not in place 50 years ago.

Several factors interacted to drive the emergence of intense fisheries management. Global fishing effort expanded particularly between 1950 and 1990, leading to an increase in food production – and fishing pressure. More and more stocks became overfished. Historically, most continental shelf fisheries were open to all fishing countries, and coastal states could not control fishing beyond 12 miles. But, beginning in the late 1970s, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the declaration of Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs), gave states almost totally control for fisheries in a 200 nautical mile-wide band of their coastal waters.

In 1992, the highly-publicised collapse of a major Canadian cod stock focused global attention on the urgent need to stop overfishing – and better manage our fisheries. Similar declines in fish stocks have played out across major fisheries globally in the last half-century where abundance data is available: in Argentina, Canada, Chile, Europe, Japan, New Zealand, Peru, South Africa and the United States, and on the high seas, leading to the implementation of catch and effort restrictions.

The ability of science-based fisheries management to rebuild fish stocks — when it is applied — is visible in global data.

We used a database of over 1,000 stocks from across the world – with highly reliable information on their status – to track fishing pressure and fish abundance, with the results published in 2020 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [1]. As the pressure rose between the 1970s and the 1990s, average fish abundance across all stocks declined. Then, in the 1990s, fisheries management as we know it today began to take shape and to intensify, reducing the fishing pressure. By 2000, we could see increases in the average abundance of the 1,000 fish stocks, and today, these stocks are, on average, well above target levels to maximize food production.

The United States provides some insight into the power of fisheries management to impact stock health. Alaska is home to the largest fisheries in the country – including pollock, cod, sole, salmon, crab, herring and halibut – many of which have sustained Alaskan communities since humans first arrived. Offshore fisheries were developed far more recently by foreign vessels, until the declaration of the United States’ EEZ in 1983. By that time, industrial fishing in the North Atlantic had already overfished many stocks, and Alaska’s managers, scientists and fishermen had seen the catastrophic consequences of poor fisheries management. As a result, managers had learned the lessons of the North Atlantic and fishing pressure never rose too high — the abundance of the fish has remained well above target levels.

In contrast to the proactive management observed in Alaska, fisheries on the Pacific west coast of the lower 48 states followed the pattern seen more broadly around the world: fishing pressure increased all the way up until the 1990s, then declined. Changes made to the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Management and Conservation Act in 1996 required overfished stocks to be identified and rebuilt on a strict timeline. Allowable catches were dramatically reduced, sometimes by over 90 per cent. The size of the fishing fleet declined and the abundance of the fish stocks increased — all but one of the stocks classified as overfished are now at or above management targets. Consequently, local fishing communities were devastated: processing plants closed, boats were tied up, and fishing income declined dramatically. Ironically, the proportion of the allowable catch harvested also declined dramatically, and current scientific evidence indicates that much less drastic reductions in catch would have allowed stocks to rebuild, while at the same time protecting fishing communities [2].

Appropriate fisheries management tools depend on local circumstances. We know a broad suite of management measures, used collectively, successfully reduces fishing pressure and increases fish abundance. We also know that some specific management measures have a disproportionately positive impact on a stock’s recovery, including harvest control rules and rebuilding plans. Strong commitment to international fisheries agreements also strengthens fisheries management in domestic waters [3].

The roadmap to fisheries sustainability is clear – where science-based management has been intensely applied, fish stocks are now healthy or improving. The problem lies in that we still lack reliable information about the health of the stocks which make up at least half of the world’s catch, thus the prognosis of their stock status is that most will continue to be overfished. These data-limited fisheries are critical for food security and micronutrient requirements in some of the world’s poorest communities. Greater investment in fisheries management systems will lead to healthier fish populations, to the benefit of all the communities that rely upon them.


1. Hilborn, R., Amoroso, R.O., Anderson, C.M., Baum, J.K., Branch, T.A., Costello, C., Moor, C.L.d., Faraj, A., Hively, D., Jensen, O.P., Kurota, H., Little, L.R., Mace, P., McClanahan, T., Melnychuk, M.C., Minto, C., Osio, G.C., Parma, A.M., Pons, M., Segurado, S., Szuwalski, C.S., Wilson, J.R. and Ye, Y. (2020). Effective fisheries management instrumental in improving fish stock status, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117, (4), pp. 2218-2224, [13 November 2020]

2. McQuaw, K., Punt, A.E. and Hilborn, R. (2021). Evaluating alternative rebuilding plans for mixed stock fisheries, Fisheries Research 240, p. 105984, [17 June 2021]

3. Melnychuk, M.C., Kurota, H., Mace, P.M., Pons, M., Minto, C., Osio, G.C., Jensen, O.P., de Moor, C.L., Parma, A.M., Richard Little, L., Hively, D., Ashbrook, C.E., Baker, N., Amoroso, R.O., Branch, T.A., Anderson, C.M., Szuwalski, C.S., Baum, J.K., McClanahan, T.R., Ye, Y., Ligas, A., Bensbai, J., Thompson, G.G., DeVore, J., Magnusson, A., Bogstad, B., Wort, E., Rice, J. and Hilborn, R. (2021). Identifying management actions that promote sustainable fisheries, Nature Sustainability, (4), pp. 440-449, [10 March 2021]


Ray Hilborn

Professor of aquatic and fishery science at the University of Washington. University of Washington

Ray Hilborn’s research aims to identify how to best manage fisheries to provide sustainable benefits to human society. In addition to his work on global fisheries, Ray Hilborn is one of the principal investigators for the University of Washington’s long-running Alaska Salmon Program. In recognition for his many contributions to fisheries science, he has received the Volvo Environmental Prize, the American Fisheries Societies Award of Excellence, The Ecological Society of America’s Sustainability Science Award, the International Fisheries Science Prize and the American Institute of Fisheries Research Biologists Outstanding Achievement Award. He is also an elected Fellow of the Washington State Academy of Sciences, the Royal Society of Canada, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Case StudyGlobal Fishing Index

Working smarter, not harder: Empowering fishers to fish more responsibly

By Dr Hoyt Peckham, Wildlife Conservation Society; Cecilia Blasco, SmartFish NGO; and Jada Tullos Anderson, Wildlife Conservation Society

Porfirio Zuñiga, a Mexico fisher, was trapped in a vicious cycle of overfishing. Forced to catch ever more fish at ever lower quality, to compensate for steadily decreasing prices and increasing costs, the outlook for Porfirio and the thousand or so other fishers who depend on Mexican sandbass was grim.

This cycle, which is common – even universal – where fisheries governance is relatively weak, perpetuates a poverty trap. It jeopardizes the wellbeing of small-scale fishers and fishworkers, their communities, and the ecosystems upon which they depend.

Porfirio, and Mexico’s 250,000 licensed artisanal fishers, would not be trapped this way if Mexico’s fisheries policies were backed by better information, management and compliance. But it isn’t.

In 2013, we built a hybrid social enterprise that combines a non-profit NGO with a for-profit business, the SmartFish Group, to empower Mexican fishers like Porfirio to overcome this vicious cycle of overfishing and poverty through an approach widely used in small-scale agriculture [1].

On the supply side, the non-profit SmartFish NGO screens and then partners with artisanal fishing cooperatives (co-ops) with strong institutional capacity such as leadership and administrative structures. We ‘incubate’ them, professionalizing, and bringing in line with international standards, all aspects of their businesses across the three sustainability dimensions – environmental, social and economic. As a result, these co-ops produce higher-quality seafood that’s also more responsibly caught, more sustainable and also food-safety certified.

Porfirio Z. Zuñiga (above) and other partners of his co-op at Punta Abreojos, BCS Mexico dramatically improved the quality and price of their sandbass by improving their catching, handling, processing, packing, and transport techniques. Photo Credit: Carlos Aguilar, SmartFish.
Porfirio Z. Zuñiga (above) and other partners of his co-op at Punta Abreojos, BCS Mexico dramatically improved the quality and price of their sandbass by improving their catching, handling, processing, packing, and transport techniques. Photo Credit: Carlos Aguilar, SmartFish.

SmartFish Inc., the business side, sells their catch into more profitable markets, rewarding fishers like Porfirio for their more responsible fishing and incentivizing them to further improve their performance. Core to SmartFish Inc’s model are shorter supply chains, rigorous sourcing policies, comprehensive traceability systems and full transparency, including open-book’ negotiations. Unfortunately, these basic approaches are lamentably unusual in the extremely opaque seafood sector.

To date, Smartfish NGO has assessed 50 co-ops and their associated fisheries and partnered with thirteen of them. Seven of these co-ops, including Porfirio’s, have fully integrated our recommendations, yielding important outcomes. Catch and bycatch have decreased thanks to the use of more selective – and labour-intensive – gear.

The prices received by fishers have risen by an average 71 per cent and the percentage of the final value that co-ops retain has increased an average of 54 per cent. We see stronger co-ops because of the retained value, more diversified revenue and financial resources, and increased work for unemployed and under employed coastal citizens, particularly female family members of fishers.

Lastly, these partnerships have implications for governance: improved data collected through the traceability systems can be used to inform management and improve co-management capacity and measures, including fishing reserves, voluntary quotas and size limits and time-area closures.

Tempting as it is to leverage markets to drive fisheries improvement, doing so is not a panacea for improving fisheries globally. Fisheries market interventions in general – and increases in fish value, specifically – can produce unintended social, economic, and environmental consequences. These may include increased fishing effort, lost access to fish for food for the poor and displacement of women and other marginalized people.

To ensure against these unintended impacts, we start by screening fisheries for several enabling conditions, including that access is limited to the fishery, and target species are biologically resilient. We also developed a suite of both intrinsic and conditional ‘safeguards’, including systematic assessment to identify risks; third-party environmental validation to improve trust and easily communicate improvement actions; and conservation covenants to protect against overfishing and habitat destruction. With these safeguards in place, SmartFish NGO is gearing up to replicate nationally, aiming to directly empower more than 6,000 Mexican fishers by 2025.

We’ve learned several lessons in the process of developing this market-based approach. First, systematically assess fisheries’ governance, social and financial as well as environmental performance prior to intervening in order to better tailor durable, equitable improvements.

Second, carefully research and if possible, test a suite of safeguards, to avoid fuelling the fire of overfishing and or deepening inequalities. Third, it’s crucial to avoid setting unrealistic expectations to engage partners – for example, better prices, market access and the like. Finally, because market leverage can be exceedingly powerful it must be wielded with precautionary care. Too often, market forces are unleashed in fisheries where fishers lack basic socioeconomic rights. Following a rights-based-approach to fisheries governance, we recommend sequencing investments in small-scale fisheries, first securing fishers’ basic socioeconomic rights, then ensuring fisheries governance is robust before eventually intervening in fisheries markets.

To address that first point, SmartFish NGO has partnered with Ocean Outcomes, Conservation International and Wilderness Markets to produce and pilot a Triple Impact Fisheries Evaluation Framework (Triple Impact Framework). In contrast to conventional, environmentally-focused fisheries improvement and certification processes, this approach reduces the risk of unintended consequences by tackling the ‘big three’ – social, financial and environmental – dimensions of fisheries.

As the Global Fishing Index governance ratings illustrate, many countries with small-scale fisheries have limited management capacity. With robust safeguards and enabling conditions in place, this triple impact approach can be used to cautiously harness markets, empower fishers to fish more responsibly – and encourage co-management that will strengthen governance.

Ocean Outcomes, Conservation International, and the Wildlife Conservation Society, along with local NGO and commercial partners, are using the Triple Impact Framework across a range of governance contexts. The Triple Impact Framework can be found on the Small Scale Fisheries Hub Resource library and at Ocean Outcomes.


1. Hoyt Peckham and Cecilia Blasco


Cecilia Blasco

Executive Director SmartFish

Cecilia Blasco is Executive Director of Smartfish Rescate de Valor, AC where she oversees a multidisciplinary team that provides technical and entrepreneurial assistance to artisanal fishers and seafood buyers. Founded in 2013, SmartFish’s mission is to foster a market for sustainably caught seafood in Mexico by catalyzing both supply and demand. Before joining SmartFish Cecilia worked at the Mexican Fund for the Conservation of Nature for over 10 years. Cecilia is originally from Argentina and lived in Kenya, Switzerland, and the USA before moving to Mexico. She has a Master’s in Environmental Science from the Yale Environmental School and a BA in geography from Dartmouth College.

Dr Hoyt Peckham

Director Small-scale Fisheries Wildlife Conservation Society

Hoyt Peckham is leading the development of WCS’ new global Small-scale Fisheries program. Prior to this, Hoyt founded and led the The SmartFish Group to incentivize more responsible fishing across Mexico and beyond. He holds a BA in biology and English from Bowdoin College, a doctorate in evolutionary ecology from the University of California at Santa Cruz, and was awarded a Pew Marine Conservation Fellowship. Hoyt has experience as a captain, diver, fisher, ecologist, and serial entrepreneur working in and on fisheries in Latin America, Polynesia, the Caribbean, NW Atlantic, SE Asia and Japan, and his specialties include responsible seafood, social enterprise, and transparency and equity in value chains.

Jada Tullos

Small-Scale Fisheries Program Manager Wildlife Conservation Society

Jada specializes in projects integrating market-based solutions and environmental sustainability. A graduate of Texas A&M and the Nicholas School of the Environment at Duke University, she has worked with organizations like the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, providing input on environmental risks of investments, and with Kiva, giving strategic recommendations to partners as well as performing field audits of microfinance groups in Kenya. For the past eight years she’s led research and provided recommendations for fishery value chain sustainable development in more than a dozen fisheries in seven countries. At WCS she’s helping develop a global small-scale fisheries strategy that integrates wildlife, ecosystems and people.

A group of pa aling divers crowds around a net full of fish after it has been floated to the surface. Pa aling is a controversial Filipino fishing technique that involves a team of divers who breathe compressed air pumped down pipes from a boat. On the seabed the divers set up a huge net at one side of a deep sea reef and then swim across the reef in a line from the opposite side in order to corral fish into the net – South China Sea, Philippines. Photo Credit: Gulfu Photography via Getty Images.
Case StudyGlobal Fishing Index

A new fisheries model: Promoting cooperation in the South China Sea

By the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue

The South China Sea represents both a potential geopolitical flashpoint and a looming ecological disaster. The rich fishing grounds are estimated to contribute 12 per cent [1, 2] of the global fish catch and employ more than 3.7 million people [3]. Yet there has been an alarming decline in fish stocks in the region – with stocks fished down to a fraction of their original levels [4].

If nothing is done, this decline is predicted to continue over the coming decades with serious implications for food security. While the exact cause of this rapid ecological decline is still being explored, it is clear that the ecosystem is under severe strain.

There is an ongoing struggle over which states have the right to control access to and resources of the South China Sea. Maritime rights or sovereignty over various features in South China Sea are asserted by a range of states including Brunei, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam. More than a mere dispute over resources, countries see defending their rights as essential to protecting their national security and affirming their national honour.

Despite the rising hostilities, the interconnected nature of the South China Sea’s fish stocks means that regional states need to work together to prevent further decline. There have been many calls for increased cooperation, including from the regional states themselves [5]. However, sovereignty disputes have obstructed the development of regional institutions that could enable cooperation.

To overcome this impasse, scientists and governments from China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam have been meeting regularly since 2018 to identify practical ways to work together. This process has been supported by the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, an independent and neutral organisation with the mission to prevent, mitigate, and resolve violent conflict.

Early on, it became clear that the first step towards cooperation was to gain consensus on the state of fish stocks in the region. While there was significant expertise available, the evidence was held by each country and rarely shared – which, in turn, kept officials from making decisions about how best to protect and ensure the sustainability of fish stocks.

Over the course of five meetings between scientists, fisheries policy makers, diplomats and national security officials, a plan was developed to undertake a Common Fisheries Resource Analysis together – a voluntary, science-led and informal process.

This process crystalised the essential role of bilateral consultation during the cooperative process. Prior to convening participants from the five countries, Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue first undertook detailed individual consultation with participants from each country. This helped ensure the meetings and overall process remained consistent with the priorities of each country and focused on what is politically possible.

As of early 2021, scientists from the five countries have selected a focus species (skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis), reviewed the available evidence and selected a common stock assessment method to assess the data. Scientists are now working within single-country groups to use this method to analyse their own data. The results of that analysis are then shared by the scientists with the other countries. This individual country focus and sequencing avoids countries having to share raw data, while allowing regional scientists to leverage their collective expertise and pool evidence to build a shared scientific consensus on the state of fish stocks. This consensus could provide a foundation for further cooperation by states at the official level.

The Common Fisheries Resource Analysis is a modest effort considering the scale of the South China Sea’s environmental challenges. Still, this relatively small step is important: the efforts are delivering scientific evidence to improve domestic policies. By combining the analysis among the five participating countries, fisheries policies have a stronger evidence base on which to make policy decisions.

The process is also developing norms and standards for regional cooperation. For example, the resource analysis process is building a group of scientists across the region that understands the same stock assessment method. It is also demonstrating the benefits of a regional scientific cooperation.

In an environment of low trust, the process aims to show that scientists are willing to cooperate, and that this type of cooperation has genuine benefits to all regional states.

Despite news headlines of hostilities, the experience of working on practical cooperation has shown that scientists around the region are willing to work together. Government officials are also starting to see this scientific cooperation as an important way to protect the South China Sea’s marine environment and build the trust necessary to ensure the South China Sea remains peaceful.

The authors would like to acknowledge the work and dedication of the scientists, experts and policy makers around the region that make this work possible.


1. Sumaila, U.R. and Cheung, W.W.L. (2015). Boom or Bust: The Future of Fish in the South China Sea, Living Oceans Report, ADM Capital Foundation. [15 July 2021]

2. Pauly, D., Zeller, D. and Palomares, M.L.D. (2021). Sea Around Us Concepts, Design and Data. [30 June 2021]

3. Funge-Smith, S., Briggs, M. and Miao, W. (2012). Regional overview of fisheries and aquaculture in Asia and the Pacific 2012 (RAP Publication 2012/26), Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. [15 July 2021]

4. Silvestre, G.T., Garces, L.R., Stobutzki, I., Ahmed, M., Santos, R.A.V., Luna, C.Z. and Zhou, W. (2003). South and South-East Asian coastal fisheries: Their status and directions for improved management: conference synopsis and recommendations, in: Silvestre, G., Garces, L., Stobutzki, I., Ahmed, M., Valmonte-Santos, R.A., Luna, C., Lachica-Aliño, L., Munro, P., Christensen, V., Pauly, D. (Eds.). Assessment, Management and Future Directions for Coastal Fisheries in Asian Countries, WorldFish Center Conference Proceedings, pp. 1-120. [15 July 2021]

5. See for example the ASEAN-China Declaration for a Decade of Coastal and Marine Environmental Protection in the South China Sea (2017-2027) and ASEAN-China Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (2002).


Alex Douglas

Adviser/Project Manager, Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue

Alex Douglas currently works on a range of HD projects across Asia on peace processes, forced migration, and communal violence. From 2013-2015, he managed HD’s project to reduce communal violence in Myanmar. Before joining HD, Alex was working for the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) where he focused on humanitarian emergencies, managing natural resources and social protection in both Australia and Indonesia. He was previously involved in monitoring violence and elections for the Carter Center, in Nepal and Liberia. Alex has two degrees from Flinders University in Australia, one in International Studies and the other a Bachelor of Laws and Legal Practice.

Newsby Minderoo Foundation

Deep-sea mining is still a possibility despite growing calls for a moratorium

Following a pivotal series of meetings in Jamaica in July 2023, one company is pushing ahead with its plans to commence deep-sea mining despite no regulations being agreed upon by the International Seabed Authority (ISA).

Tomopteris sp.
Tomopteris sp., belonging to a genus of deep-sea worms. Photo credit: Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute.

Need a refresher on what deep-sea mining is? Read more here.

Outcome of the July 2023 International Seabed Authority meetings

ISA member states were under pressure to finalise regulations that would allow for deep-sea mining, after a two-year ‘deadline’ was triggered in 2021.

However, countries pushed back on the attempt to fast-track mining.

The ISA council, responsible for drafting regulations, agreed to postpone finalising a mining code until at least 2025 due to the lack of science to show that there would not be irreversible damage to the marine environment.

But pro-mining states pushed back in the final week of meetings, known as the ISA Assembly and comprised of 167 member states. A proposed agenda item to discuss the growing call for a pause in fast-tracking mining regulations was blocked, as these pro-mining countries argued it was not in the remit of the Assembly to discuss the matter.

As the Assembly is the supreme organ of the International Seabed Authority and the mandate of the body is to ensure both the protection of the marine environment and the exploitation, many nations questioned this logic.

“The Assembly should have a debate on something that is of the utmost importance to all, protection of marine environment. It is part of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and we regret it is continuously blocked,” Hervé Berville, French State Secretary for the Sea, said.

The final agreement saw the agenda item – with an additional item for discussion about the obligatory periodic review of the International Seabed Authority’s operations – be revisited in the 2024 meetings.

Disappointed at the outcome, deep-sea mining aspirant The Metals Company announced it would submit an application to mine from July 2024 whether there are mining regulations in place or not. [1]

What’s at stake

Four billion years of life has evolved in the ocean, three times longer than on land. Ocean life makes life on earth possible, regulating our climate, providing much of the air we breathe, and generating vital food sources for billions of people.

The deep ocean may also hold the key to advancing medical science, as a potential source of beneficial molecules that could be used for antibiotics. Enzymes found in bacteria living around deep-sea hydrothermal vents are already used in tests for the COVID-19 virus. [2]

Yet we live in surprising ignorance of the deep ocean, particularly the creatures living in the deepest parts of our ocean and seabed, at depths of more than 10km below the surface.

An estimated 2.2 million species call our ocean home and only 10 per cent of these have been discovered and named to date. Each year 2,300 species are found, a figure that hasn’t changed significantly since the 1800s. [3]

Without proper regulations, deep-sea mining could wipe out these marine species.

What’s next

A growing number of global businesses and financers are indicating that, by the time rare-earth metals are collected from the deep sea, there might not be a market for them. [4] The global seafood sector, and 37 global financial institutions, representing over €3.3 trillion of combined assets, are also urging governments to not let deep-sea mining go ahead.

Twenty-one countries – including Fiji, Palau, Vanuatu, France and Chile – have called for a pause, moratorium or ban on deep-sea mining until more scientific knowledge of its impacts and the protection of the marine environment can be guaranteed.

To ensure deep-sea mining is not fast-tracked, more countries need to attend the ISA Assembly and have an honest conversation about a precautionary pause.

Further, more countries must announce a ban, precautionary pause, or a moratorium on deep-sea mining.

You can call on your country to stand up for our oceans.

1. Source: The Metals Co. release:

2. Source: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution:

3. Source: Ocean Census:

4. Source: Finance for Biodiversity:

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Why deep-sea mining is not the solution for critical metals in the green economy

The world is racing towards a “green economy”. An economy powered by renewable energy technologies such as electric vehicles, wind turbines and solar panels to reverse the effects of climate change and preserve this beautiful earth we call home.

Gyrinomimis sp. swimming in the deep ocean
Gyrinomimis sp. swimming in the deep ocean. Photo credit: Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute.

The transition to a low-carbon economy has led to a surge in demand for critical metals like cobalt, nickel, and copper, currently used in products such as batteries, wind turbines and solar panels to generate renewable energy.

Until now, the metals to power our transition to a green economy have been sourced from land, but some would have us now believe that we also need to exploit the pristine wilderness of the deep sea.

Supporters of deep-sea mining argue that extracting these metals from ancient geological features on the ocean floor could provide a new source of raw materials for the green economy.

Emerging research argues however, that deep-sea mining is unnecessary and potentially harmful to our environment and that there are alternative ways to meet the demand for critical metals.

Environmental impacts

It is essential to acknowledge that the full environmental impacts of deep-sea mining are unknown. The ocean floor is a complex and fragile ecosystem that hosts many species, many of which are undiscovered.

Deep-sea mining involves disturbing the seafloor and releasing sediment into the water, which could harm or destroy habitats and lead to the extinction of species.

The long-term effects of deep-sea mining are still poorly understood, and the damage caused could be irreversible.

A circular economy

There is growing recognition that recycling and circular economy approaches could help to reduce the demand for new sources of critical metals.

Recycling reduces the need for mining, reduces waste, and conserves resources. The recycling rates for many critical metals are currently low, and there is significant potential for improvement with more research and investment.

Land-based mining

Many countries have significant reserves of critical metals on land and the potential for further discovery and development. In addition, land-based mining has a growing focus on responsible mining practices, prioritising environmental protection, social responsibility, and transparency.

By improving land-based mining operations, we can minimise the environmental impacts of resource extraction on land and remove the need to start mining in the deep sea.

Alternative technology

We must rely on more than current technology for the long term. As part of switching to a green economy, there needs to be a heavy focus on research and development toward alternative technologies that are more sustainable and do not rely on these critical metals.

The demand for critical metals is increasing as the world transitions towards a low-carbon economy; however, deep-sea mining is not the solution for critical metals. The potential environmental risks and uncertainties associated with deep-sea mining make it an unacceptable option.

We must focus on improving recycling rates, developing circular economy approaches, promoting responsible and efficient land-based mining practices, and exploring new and emerging technologies that reduce the demand for critical metals. By doing so, we can ensure that we meet the needs of the future in a way that is sustainable and environmentally responsible.

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Would you like a side of plastics with that?

by Minderoo’s chief scientist, Dr Tony Worby.

Would you like a side of plastic with that?

Here’s some food for thought - Plastic is in the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the food we eat. Which means it’s also in us.

From the hazardous chemicals unknowingly affecting our health to microplastics saturating our environment, plastic pollution and its impacts will only worsen if left unchecked.

Plastic pollution begins at the source – the production process. Almost every piece of plastic is derived from fossil fuels like oil and gas, which generate greenhouse gas emissions that drive climate change. Once plastic is made, it virtually never goes away, with nearly all the plastic ever produced still existing somewhere on the planet.

And while plastic pollution in our environment is a significant problem, it is much more than just an issue of waste management or recycling. It extends to the hazardous chemicals that can be present in plastics, permeating our daily routines and unknowingly affecting our health.

From the moment food is put in shiny plastic containers, toxic chemicals can leach into our food, posing a direct threat to our well-being. Even after disposal, discarded plastic can continue to wreak havoc, breaking down into smaller, harder-to-manage pieces that infiltrate our soil and oceans, further exacerbating the problem.

The forecasted growth in plastic is alarming, with projections indicating plastic waste is on track to almost triple by 2060. Equally concerning is the sheer number of chemicals in plastics, estimated at around 16,000 chemicals, with at least 4,200 of those chemicals considered to be highly hazardous to human health and the environment.

Many chemicals and additives used to produce plastics are known for their ability to interfere with our hormones and immune functions. Across their life cycle, they have been linked to increased risk of serious health issues, including premature births, neurodevelopmental disorders, infertility, obesity, heart diseases, and various forms of cancer.

These hazardous substances can infiltrate our bodies through everyday exposures, like the packaging of our favourite takeaway curries, shedding off our sweaty activewear and into our lungs, and even tap and bottled water consumption, underscoring the urgent need for action.

Plastic pollution does not belong in our bodies or the environment. Current regulations fall short in curbing toxic chemical use, emphasising the need for stricter policies and consumer advocacy.

To help tackle these pressing issues, Minderoo is calling for a legally binding Global Plastics Treaty, which includes three key asks:

  1. Reduction of virgin fossil fuel-based plastic production.
  2. Removal of harmful chemicals in plastics.
  3. Creation of a scientific advisory body to guide treaty implementation and adaptation.

While the scale of the plastic pollution problem may seem overwhelming, individuals can take meaningful action to reduce their plastic footprint. Minderoo has produced an evidence-based mini ebook, "7 Ways to Reduce Your Exposure to Toxic Chemicals in Everyday Plastics," as a resource for individuals looking to make a difference.

With its pervasive presence in our lives and its potential to impact human health, we must reduce the unchecked growth of virgin fossil fuel-based plastic and use of harmful chemicals. By taking decisive steps to reduce our plastic consumption and advocate for change, we can safeguard our health and the well-being of future generations.

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Betty Osei Bonsu is my name; this is my plastic toxic story

Betty Osei Bonsu is my name; this is my plastic toxic story.

From a young age, I witnessed plastics being buried and burnt, I saw it disappear, and my mother confirmed it. Yet, 26 years later, tests reveal these same plastics are in my body. Where did it come from? Oh, how can I forget? I sleep in it, eat and drink from it, and at times consume it unknowingly. To make matters worse, a harsh reality persists that from the production and trade of these plastics, the rich grow richer, the poor poorer, and we all grow sicker. Ladies and gentlemen this is my plastic toxic story.

My travels across Africa and firsthand experience shed further light on the effect of plastic waste. In Kenya, a school situated near the Dandora landfill and plagued by illegal dumping and mismanaged waste was forced to close due to a surge in health problems among the students (link).

In Uganda, I witnessed over a hundred waste pickers toiling under deadly conditions in West Africa’s largest landfill Kiteezi for daily sustenance (link).

In Mali, some communities live on the top of waste dumps, suffering from poor water quality due to groundwater contamination (link).

Meanwhile, in Ghana, fishermen catch plastic as fish (link) but amidst this crisis, the country still imports 2.58 million tonnes of plastic every year (Ghana Business News (link)).

These observations underscore the urgent need for coordinated action, reinforced by my own Plastic Tox Test results a global Campaign by Minderoo Foundation.

This test empowers one with the knowledge to reduce toxic exposures and embark on a detox journey towards a healthier lifestyle. It’s tested using one’s urine for plastic chemicals including bisphenol, paraben, phthalate and oxybenzone. My results came out in concentrations of MEDIUM as compared to other Million Marker users and national data. These chemicals were the few out of the 13,000 identified by UNEP as associated with plastics and plastic production. What other evidence do you need? This is an urgent call to action to ban toxic chemicals in all virgin and recycled plastics, including additives and transition to a toxic-free and sustainable circular economy.

As part of the solution, I was advised against using fragrance products including personal care products, cleaning products, air fresheners, perfumes, candles, etc.
But then ladies and gentlemen, I don’t want to walk in this room smelling. This means my action to smell is not enough but should be a joint effort. But if we don’t want to smell then we all here have to make our stance on the global plastics treaty to ensure strong regulations on the plastic waste trade, set mandatory targets to cap and dramatically reduce virgin plastic production and provide sustainable alternative solutions to plastic packaging.

In addition to these demands, CSO/NGOs, coalitions and youth are demanding a Global Plastics Treaty that:

  • would hold polluting corporations and plastic-producing countries accountable
  • presents a vital opportunity to move away from the existing linear take-make-waste packaging economy and enable the flow of financial resources
  • legally binding, time-bound, and ambitious targets to implement and scale up reuse and refill to accelerate the transition away from single-use plastics
  • provides a just transition to safer and more sustainable livelihoods for workers and communities across the plastics supply chain, including those in the informal waste sector; and addresses the needs of frontline communities affected by plastic production, incineration, and open burning.

These demands showcase the commitment of grassroots organisations like the Green Africa Youth to environmental sustainability and community development. Through our efforts to promote social inclusion and foster youth participation, we are creating equitable policies and promoting generational sustainability. This is done through our projects like the Youth Climate Councils and Zero Waste Cities at local and global stages. While the world can draw valuable lessons from these actions, there remains much to be done. We further demand the enhancement of youth capabilities to empower them to negotiate for a future that is fairer, more equitable and free from plastics.

I proceeded to discuss the findings of my plastic test with family and friends, but they were surprised and questioned the possibility of such results (about 95% of them). Their doubt underscores that developing a Global Plastics Treaty on its own is insufficient; we must also commit to educating grassroots communities about the impact of plastics to truly effect change. The plastic crisis is a toxic crisis, impacting everyone from the elderly to the young and even future generations. After discovering these toxins in my own body, the question isn't whether I should advocate for a robust and effective global treaty, but why are we not all doing so? These contaminants are not just in me; they are in all of us, from the oceans to our meals. Ladies and gentlemen, a comprehensive and equitable global plastics treaty isn’t just a need; it’s a birthright.

Betty Osei Bonsu is my name. This is my plastic toxic story.

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Will the budget break norms, shift harms and be empowering rather than just “good” for women?

by Minderoo’s Executive Director of Gender Equality, Jacqueline Joudo Larsen.

Demonstrators take part in a national rally against violence against women in the central business district of Sydney.
Demonstrators take part in a national rally against violence against women in the central business district of Sydney. Photo credit: Lisa Maree Williams / Getty Images.

Australia's federal budget landed on Tuesday. But is it enough?

There were some clear wins for gender equality, including:

  • Over $2 billion for domestic and family violence support, including increased spend in crisis and transitional accommodation and investment in perpetration research.
  • $6.5 million to tackle extreme misogyny online, a known precursor to physical violence and protagonist of anti-feminist behaviours.
  • A commitment (but no funding) to increase the wages of care workers – one of Australia’s most important and demanding professions, which is largely done by women – and $1.1 billion for superannuation on paid parental leave.
  • $56.1m into women’s health issues that have been largely underfunded.

Gender equality fosters stronger, more resilient and more prosperous societies. It is not only the right thing to do but also a key driver of sustainable development and economic growth. If rigid gender norms in Australia were addressed, an extra $128 billion could be added to our economy each year. Meanwhile, a failure to act decisively to address gender-based violence costs the Australian government an estimated $26 billion annually.

With this in mind, will this budget break norms, shift harms and be empowering rather than just “good” for women? It’s a healthy step toward cementing critical progress but falls far short of the challenge we face.

  • The activity test, a significant barrier to children receiving early years support and women seeking employment, still stands.
  • Paid parental leave is yet to meet comparable OECD standards.
  • While a pay increase for care workers is desperately overdue, the entire care economy needs more if we are to truly improve well-being, and value those who underpin our society.
  • Violence in Australia is an epidemic – investing significantly in prevention is as critical as investing in the crisis response (which also needs more).
  • While it’s a human right, not all Australians have access to – or are even guaranteed – safe housing and freedom from violence.

In the last 12 months Australia has been spoilt with strategies, plans and appointments that, with the right support, will tackle the most hardwired social norms and inequities with conviction and integrity. To “invest in the promise and potential of the more prosperous future” the Treasurer spoke of, we need more than “good for women”, we need “game-changing for equality” and we need it now.

Stay up to date on our gender equality work by signing up to our Online Community at the top of the page.

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Minderoo Foundation publicly releases details of SafeGates, Israel urged to act to avoid a mass starvation event

Minderoo Foundation has today made public the intellectual property of its SafeGates solution following Israel’s ongoing deferral of adopting the life-saving technology.

SafeGates designs.
Project SafeGates entails the construction and operation of three new automated, efficient, and secure crossings (the SafeGates); and the automation of the screening of vehicles delivering aid through security-enforced boundaries to mitigate, to the extent reasonably practicable, risk to either side.
On 11 June, Minderoo Foundation announced SafeGates – a fast, secure and effective plan that would assist the avoidance of a major starvation event in Gaza impacting up to 1 million people, including 400,000 children.

Minderoo Foundation Chairman Dr Andrew Forrest AO said Israel’s dithering over the past fortnight, despite Fortescue having provided the technology to deliver large amounts of aid, raises legitimate questions about how Israel will meet its ironclad obligations under international humanitarian law. To reiterate the comprehensive nature of Minderoo’s offer to Israel – and the speed at which it could be implemented – the drawings and designs for SafeGates, including schedules and a project plan, have today been published on Minderoo Foundation’s website and are freely available to view safegates-ip.

Dr Forrest said Minderoo scientists and doctors, in consultation with experts in Israel, had assessed the number of vulnerable people in Gaza exposed to death through starvation to be in excess of 1 million people, including 400,000 children.

“In such conditions, people with little to no access to medical care or food are extremely vulnerable to the outbreak of disease,” Dr Forrest said.

“In crowded, unsanitary and unsustainable living conditions, people become emaciated and immuno-suppressed with devastating consequences. If a mass starvation event were to occur, Minderoo assesses the mortality risk could ultimately be on par with that suffered by the people of Rwanda in 1994. This is a preventable disaster.”

“In the face of Israel’s inability to act, Minderoo Foundation has decided to release the intellectual property of SafeGates publicly and asks the powers of the Middle East, including Israel, to immediately work together to prevent this entirely predictable disaster. October 7th was a tragic and unjustified attack, and all those illegally snatched from their homes should be immediately released. The right for Israel to defend itself against terror is clear and absolute, but the manner in which it does so and the obligations it resultantly must meet, matter a great deal.”

Dr Forrest said Minderoo Foundation remained resolutely committed to supporting a comprehensive humanitarian response in Gaza, with a $19 million package committed already, including the provision of additional delivery trucks inside Gaza and an offer to bituminize a spine corridor, approximately 40km long, down the middle of Gaza, which would accelerate aid to vulnerable babies, children and their families.

“Minderoo Foundation provided Israel a fully financed solution to enable the flow of thousands of tonnes of aid to enter Gaza securely and efficiently to prevent a generational disaster and mass starvation event,” Dr Forrest said.

“For more than two months, Minderoo Foundation was in detailed consultation and technical discussion with Israeli and Palestinian officials. SafeGates were presented as an urgent solution, and we requested they be treated as such.

“Heartbreakingly, despite thorough reviews and discussions, Israel was unable to step outside its normal operating parameters to provide full approval in a timely manner that would have seen the first gate operational in two weeks and all three gates operating within three weeks.”

Editor’s Note

A Minderoo team of medical experts and statisticians calculated a total accrued caloric deficit of 206,000 kcal per person in the four key locations in the Gaza Strip – Gaza City, Khan Younis City, Dier Al Balah City and Rafah City – since January 2024. To address the shortfall, the entire Gaza Strip population required about 210,000 tonnes of food aid – or almost 21,000 trucks.

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Transformational plan for Gaza aid delivery

AMMAN, Jordan -- Australia’s Minderoo Foundation has unveiled a two-pronged package to transform the delivery of humanitarian aid into Gaza, including a new partnership with the United Nations to strengthen the Jordanian Corridor.

Dr Andrew Forrest announcing a secure and efficient two-pronged package aid to Gaza.
Dr Andrew Forrest announcing a secure and efficient two-pronged package, including automated SafeGates designed to transform the delivery of humanitarian aid to Gaza.

The cornerstone of the package is SafeGates – a fast, secure and effective plan that will assist the avoidance of a major starvation event in Gaza impacting up to 1 million people, including 400,000 children. SafeGates will enable the flow of food and medicine into Gaza while maintaining the highest levels of security via three (3) new automated entry gates between Israel and Gaza.

The plan has been developed in consultation with the Government of Israel and Palestinian communities for the past two months.

With new statistics showing the flow of humanitarian aid supplies into Gaza has dropped by 67 per cent since 7 May, SafeGates would allow the safe delivery of 10,000 tonnes of food into Gaza per day via hundreds of truck movements. The trucks would be remotely monitored by a military grade automated system that uses 3D scanning to ensure security.

Chairman and Founder of Minderoo Foundation, Dr Andrew Forrest AO, announced the SafeGates plan at today’s conference “Call for Action: Urgent Humanitarian Response for Gaza” hosted by His Majesty Abdullah II of Jordan.

Dr Forrest also used the conference to announce a US$5 million commitment to accelerate aid flows into Gaza, including through a new partnership with the United Nations to strengthen the Jordanian Corridor.

The contribution includes an initial collaboration with the United Nations Office of Project Services (UNOPS) to bring significant improvements to the ‘Jordanian Corridor’ – an existing humanitarian land corridor into Gaza.

“Right now, the Jordanian people are bearing a significant load by leading the single most effective route into Gaza. It is my intention to lighten their load,” Dr Forrest said. “We will provide the expertise and finance to build the warehouses they so sorely need, deliver more trucks to move aid faster and procure the supplies themselves.

“Minderoo Foundation’s US$5 million contribution will deliver greater quantities of aid and in doing so reduce the burden on the Kingdom of Jordan. It will also support enhanced end-to-end efficiency through coordination with the UN. We are determined to ensure every avenue is exhausted to bring aid to those in need.”

With regards to SafeGates, Minderoo Foundation will underwrite the cost of constructing the gates, along with the purchase of six (6) high resolution container scanners, multiple lidar and radar units, plus all ancillary equipment required to ensure the safe and efficient passage of vehicles transporting aid into Gaza.

The United Nations has consistently identified a lack of scanning infrastructure and practical logistical support at key processing sites and crossing points as a barrier to aid deliveries.

“Being located at crossing points into Gaza, the gates will be operated by a third party that will have remote monitoring capabilities over the facilities and scanning equipment and determine the gates’ operational hours,” Dr Forrest said.

“There is no cost to Israel and the plan respects red lines. On the Gazan side, we will work with the existing network of agencies, businesses, as well as Palestinian community groups for aid distribution within the Strip.”

A Minderoo team of medical experts and statisticians has calculated a total accrued caloric deficit of 206,000 kcal per person in the four key locations in the Gaza Strip – Gaza City, Khan Younis City, Dier Al Balah City and Rafah City – since January 2024.

To address the shortfall, the entire Gaza Strip population required about 210,000 tonnes of food aid – or almost 21,000 trucks.

The Kingdom of Jordan has leveraged its strong relationship with the State of Israel to effectively provide humanitarian access to Gaza throughout the conflict. This has been achieved via two separate aid routes directly overland from the Kingdom into Gaza that have not been hampered by the need for additional checks or inspections following pre- clearance by relevant authorities in the Kingdom.

Minderoo Foundation’s contribution will bring an entire supply chain improvement to the Jordanian Corridor, including the provision of additional trucks – to be operated by the Jordanian Armed Forces on behalf of JHCO – to drive aid into Gaza.

Since October 2023, Minderoo Foundation responded immediately providing AUD$11.5m to deliver safe water, sanitation, medical supplies, medical consultations and food aid for tens of thousands of people in Gaza.

From this time, Minderoo has remained closely engaged, deepening its understanding of the situation on the ground through extensive engagement with active NGOs in Gaza, key UN agencies and in-person visits.

Gaza Summit Speech - Dr Andrew Forrest AO

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Minderoo and state government commit $34.6M boost to Early Years Partnership

By Minderoo Foundation's Communities Executive Director, Penny Dakin.

Program participants in Derby
Children and parents in Pandanus Park near Derby will benefit from the partnership. Photo credit: Emma Dolzadelli.

Think back on your early childhood – what experiences and circumstances shaped who you are?

If you were fortunate to have a childhood within a family and community that could provide you with positive influences, then you got the best possible start in life, shaped by experiences that will always be with you.

But consider the impact that adversity and disadvantage can have on a child, especially in the early years. Children who miss out on positive learning experiences within their families and communities can fall behind in education. And children who experience adversity can suffer lifelong health impacts.

Improving the early years can positively influence the trajectory of a person’s life, and it’s also a crucial part of strengthening families and cohesive communities.

This is why Minderoo Foundation has placed improving the early years at the core of our strategy to empower Australian families and communities through place-based programs.

This work is already underway through the Early Years Partnership (EYP) – a unique, ten-year partnership between the state government of Western Australia and Minderoo Foundation.

This partnership strives to improve the development, health and learning of children aged 0-4 years across partner communities in Armadale West, Central Great Southern, Derby and Bidyadanga.

The EYP encourages using innovative new methods of solving long-standing problems and is underpinned by world leading research led by the Telethon Kids Institute in order to find out what works.

Codesign and collaboration is at the heart of the EYP. The communities themselves are empowered to create Community Plans for projects that will help benefit their children, their families and their entire community.

With each of these Community Plans now ready, it’s time to accelerate.

The state government and Minderoo are together committing an additional $34.6 million dollars to ensure the EYP’s impact is deepened.

$15.6 million in Cook government funding will support the 10-year-partnership, while Minderoo will provide $19 million for continued investment in the critical stages of child development.

The EYP communities have identified 24 projects that will be tackled as a priority, including:

  • construction of an Early Learning and Family Centre (Derby)
  • additional support for child dental health services (Central Great Southern)
  • increased Child and Maternal Health Checks (Armadale West and Derby)
  • improved maternal Child and Child Health data access (Armadale)

Our Co-Founder, Nicola Forrest AO, said the budget boost would also help deliver improved access to early learning, support early identification and intervention of developmental delay, and provide critical family supports to enable children’s development and school readiness.;

“Minderoo has a core focus on community-led, placed-based approaches to uplift child and community wellbeing and we congratulate the state government on having the conviction to co-fund and the courage to trial innovative solutions that can circuit break cycles of intergenerational disadvantage. This firm commitment will enable the Early Years Partnership to have real, lasting impact on children and families in WA and beyond,” she said.

How you start can determine how you go in life, and for Minderoo this increased investment in the EYP is just the beginning. Because what we are helping to create in the EYP communities could help make changes in other WA communities, and beyond.

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The Leeuwin Ocean Adventure Foundation emerges from voluntary administration with strong community backing

The community of Western Australia has united in support for the State’s iconic tall ship, STS Leeuwin II (Leeuwin).

Minderoo Foundation Chair and Co-Founder Dr Andrew Forrest in front of the Leeuwin ship.
Minderoo Foundation Chair and Co-Founder, Dr Andrew Forrest AO & the STS Leeuwin II.

The largest sail-training ship of its kind in Australia, the Leeuwin is owned and operated by the registered charity, Leeuwin Ocean Adventure Foundation (LOAF), which today announced it had come out of voluntary administration.

Minderoo Foundation, through a $3.5 million grant, along with partners the Department of Communities, the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development and Fremantle Ports will support the Leeuwin to stay afloat.

Minderoo Foundation Chair and Co-Founder, Dr Andrew Forrest AO, said: “It is wonderful to see the Leeuwin set free and sailing into the future. We want to see this incredible organisation continue to provide benefits to all West Australians including young people.

“The Leeuwin not only provides young West Australians with the opportunity to develop and demonstrate leadership, courage and resilience, it forges a deep appreciation of the ocean. That’s why we are providing support to stabilise operations and calling on others to lean in and do the same.”

The Leeuwin is a working ship and since 1986 has provided sailing adventures for more than 40,000 people. All participants become part of the ship’s team, including sailing, steering, navigating, cleaning the ship and even climbing the mast.

“Young Western Australians, and indeed people from around the world, have enjoyed a life-changing stint on the Leeuwin and we feel it’s important that experience remains accessible for future generations,” Minderoo Foundation Co-Founder Nicola Forrest AO said.

“It is a State treasure which needs the continued support of the corporate and philanthropic community to continue to make a difference.”

To support the LOAF moving forward, a new board of directors will be appointed, led by new Chairperson Jay Weatherill AO, the former Premier of South Australia.

LOAF chief executive Annette Harwood thanked her staff, volunteers and partners for continuing to support LOAF.

“I would like to acknowledge our dedicated team at Leeuwin for their hard work and commitment to successfully relaunching the voyages we offer,” Ms Harwood said. “Our incredible volunteers serve as fantastic role models for the community and selflessly give up their time to provide young people with this incredible experience.

“Thanks to our partners, we now have an opportunity to explore new ways to engage young people and provide them with memorable experiences that they can carry into the future, and do this in a sustainable manner.”

Fremantle Ports manager of communications and community Neil Stanbury said his organisation had been a proud major sponsor of the LOAF for many years.

“We recognise and value how the organisation supports and provides a life-changing experience for young people, building resilience and boosting their employability and opportunities for the future,” he said. “As part of our sponsorship commitment, STS Leeuwin II is proudly berthed on Victoria Quay and is a wonderful tourist attraction.”

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Minderoo Foundation announces new partnership to support the demining of Ukraine farmland

Minderoo Foundation has today committed $5 million to de-mine large swathes of Ukraine’s most productive agricultural land, removing a threat to human life and helping communities and farmers in the war-torn country get back on their feet.

Minderoo Foundation Chairman Dr Andrew Forrest with Ukraine’s Ambassador to Australia, Vasyl Myroshnychenko.
Minderoo Foundation Chairman Dr Andrew Forrest with Ukraine’s Ambassador to Australia, Vasyl Myroshnychenko.

The announcement comes as the world marked the grim second anniversary of the war in Ukraine, with Minderoo Foundation being the first philanthropic partner to support the World Food Programme’s (WFP) food system project with a de-mining component - a joint project with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The project was initially funded by Croatia, the Czech Republic, the European Union, Finland, France, Norway, Poland, and the Ukraine Humanitarian Fund (UHF).

The Ukraine de-mining program uses satellite imagery to map out mined land, then dispatches specialised teams to survey and clear it – prioritising productive areas that can be quickly and safely restored. The program will prioritise rural communities and farmers in Mykolaiv and Kharkiv oblasts who can no longer cultivate land due to suspected or confirmed contamination. Minderoo’s $5 million will contribute to the program, supporting approximately 4,900 households and over 12,200 people with explosive ordinance risk training.

Minderoo Foundation Chair and Founder, Dr Andrew Forrest AO, said nearly 1 million people in Ukraine’s agricultural sector had lost their livelihoods as a result of the conflict and were unable to return to their land until it is safe.

“Coming from a long line of farmers and pastoralists, my family and I know how important it is for the people to get back on their land and do what they do best,” Dr Forrest said. “Ukraine’s agricultural sector is vital to global food supply and is the largest supplier of wheat for WFP’s famine relief programs, meaning the resumption of farming is critical for many people around the globe.”

Prior to today’s announcement, Minderoo Foundation had committed just under $14 million in critical aid to the people of Ukraine, including projects to enhance food and energy security as well as the protection and development of the children of Ukraine.

Minderoo Foundation Co-Chair and Founder, Nicola Forrest AO, said Ukraine was now the most heavily mined country in the world, ahead of Afghanistan and Syria.

“An area two-and-a-half times the size of Tasmania is now estimated to be contaminated with deadly land mines and unexploded ordinance – or 25 per cent of Ukraine’s landmass,” Mrs Forrest said. “A large portion of these landmines are in prime agricultural land whose continued presence is a hindrance to investment, food security, and an endangerment to human life. Minderoo’s support will save lives and livelihoods.”

Ukraine’s Ambassador to Australia, Vasyl Myroshnychenko, thanked Minderoo Foundation for its support and urged other donors to assist Ukraine in her hour of need.

“Assistance should not be exclusively in the realm of foreign aid or governments. Philanthropy and business have a key part to play in the Ukraine recovery,” Ambassador Myroshnychenko said.

“This is the kind of thing which citizens around the world can do. Minderoo Foundation is setting an example; we need other citizens and organisations to follow.”

About Minderoo’s Ukraine support

Minderoo Foundation has now committed just shy of AUD$20 million in critical aid to the people of Ukraine. Some of the projects funded include:

  • Minderoo Foundation provided a grant of just under AUD$2 million to the United Nations World Food Programme to enable the chartering of a bulk carrier vessel to enter Ukraine’s to deliver a shipment of 23,000 metric tons of wheat grain to WFP’s humanitarian response in the Horn of Africa. Minderoo’s support helped feed 192,600 beneficiaries in Ethiopia and acted as a catalyst for broader grain shipments.
  • Minderoo Foundation provided AUD$4.57 million towards grain storage for Ukraine farmers. This funding covered the procurement, delivery, and distribution to Ukrainian farmers of grain storage sleeves, loading machinery and modular grain storage. More than 29,000 grain sleeves have now been distributed to over 1,600 farmers throughout Ukraine with 244 modular storage units to be distributed in 2024.
  • Following a request from the Ukrainian Government, Minderoo Foundation procured 169 generators which were delivered to the Ukrainian State Emergency Service. The generators (worth AUD$3.2 million) were donated to support the ‘Points of Invincibility’ project to provide warmth, food and water for Ukrainians impacted by power outages.
  • Minderoo Foundation provided AUD$1.67 million towards the construction of 14 houses for large foster families who have lost their homes from the war, in partnership with the Olena Zelenska Foundation (Foundation of the First Lady of Ukraine) on their ‘Room for Childhood’ project for foster families.
  • Minderoo Foundation is working with our partner, International Step by Step Association, to support thousands of children with shelter and ECD service delivery hubs for and families and equipping and training educators to support children with trauma.

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Woodside, whales and the imminent danger of new fossil fuel projects

Dr Tony Worby, Chief Scientist, Minderoo Foundation

When most Australians were taking a well-earned break over Christmas and New Year, a delegation of our scientists led by Chairman Dr Andrew Forrest AO were keeping close watch on Woodside’s seismic blasting for its Scarborough gas project off Australia’s Northwest coast.

Motherly image of Humpback whale sheltering her calf
Photo credit: Philip Thurston via Getty Images.

Before Woodside can extract gas from Scarborough, the company uses seismic blasting to detect gas deposits, releasing soundwaves to the bottom of the ocean every 8-15 seconds for up to 80 days.

Monitoring marine life – our ocean work

Seismic blasting operations use sound pulses directed at the sea floor, which are some of the loudest man-made noises in the oceans [1]. Sound is vital for whales and dolphins: this is their primary sense when living in a vast and dark ocean. They use it to navigate, search for prey and communicate with each other [2].

Woodside’s seismic blasting activity on the West Australian Northwest Shelf occurs in an important migratory habitat for pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) – an endangered species that needs our protection.

Pygmy blue whales communicate at low frequencies, so the noise from offshore gas operations has the potential to mask the sounds they need to communicate with each other. It can also mask other natural sounds in the ocean that these whales rely on for navigation [3].

Our scientists, alongside many experts in marine science, are concerned about the short-term, long-term and cumulative effects on marine life of seismic blasting [4] [5].

So, while Woodside blasted, our team carried out its own passive acoustic monitoring, an inexpensive and effective way of observing the presence and distribution of marine mammals.

Minderoo’s scientists also carried out sampling of environmental DNA to detect what, if any, rare or threatened species were present around the area where Woodside was blasting. These samples are currently being analysed.

The human impact – lethal humidity

The seismic blasting kicked off just as global leaders at COP28 agreed we must move away from fossil fuels [6].

Woodside’s activities are emblematic of the broader fossil fuel industry’s impact on climate change. This connects not only to the immediate concerns about marine life but also to the far-reaching effects, such as lethal humidity, caused by rising global temperatures.

Over its total lifetime, the cumulative emissions of the Burrup Hub (of which the Scarborough project is part) could soar to 13 times Australia’s annual carbon output [7].

The 2023 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) revealed one of the greatest dangers posed by 1.5C warming was rising humidity and heat [8].

Data from NASA shows a concerning trend: for every degree the planet heats up, humidity rises by about 7 per cent, as water evaporates from our oceans and waterways [9] [10].

In dry heat, the upper limit of human survival is around 54C, however, with high humidity, our bodies can go into heatstroke from as low as 31-35C. That’s because, with high humidity and heat, our sweat can no longer effectively cool our bodies, causing our core temperature to rise [11] [12].

chart of air temperature versus relative humidity
Source [12].

Soaring humidity paired with high temperatures is not something we’re built to handle for long stretches.

Lethal humidity isn’t a small problem, either. Regions such as India, China, the United States, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Mexico, parts of Australia, and various parts of South America, Africa, Asia and Europe are all facing increased vulnerability [8].

The takeaway? The threat of humidity and rising temperatures isn’t some distant future scenario. It’s here, demanding our attention and swift action right now [8].

That’s why Dr Forrest, our Chairman, is spearheading immediate action by convening a global council focused on addressing lethal humidity and heat. His resolve includes taking the fight to his global business peers at the World Economic Forum meeting later this month.

Sign up to stay up to date on our climate work.

Minderoo’s commitment to oceans

These research activities align with one of our three core focus areas – Oceans. We work to ensure human activities in the ocean are ethical, sustainable and do not compromise the health of marine environments. We want to preserve biodiversity for future generations to enjoy – and ensure we understand and mitigate the impacts of climate change.


  • 1.Gordon, Jonathan, Douglas Gillespie, John Potter, Alexandros Frantzis, Mark P. Simmonds, René Swift and David Thompson. “A review of the effects of seismic surveys on marine mammals.” Marine Technology Society Journal 37, no. 4 (2003): 16-34.
  • Cummings, Jim and Natalie Brandon. “Sonic impact: a precautionary assessment of noise pollution from ocean seismic surveys.” Accessed online April 24 (2004): 2009.
  • Gisiner, Robert C. “Sound and marine seismic surveys.” Acoust. Today 12, no. 4 (2016): 10-18.
  • Richardson, W. John, Charles R. Greene Jr, Charles I. Malme, and Denis H. Thomson. Marine mammals and noise. Academic press, 2013.

  • 2.Richardson, W. John, Charles R. Greene Jr, Charles I. Malme, and Denis H. Thomson. Marine mammals and noise. Academic press, 2013.
  • Tyack, Peter L., and Edward H. Miller. “Vocal anatomy, acoustic communication and echolocation.” Marine mammal biology: An evolutionary approach 59 (2002): 142-84.
  • Brownell Jr, Robert L., Douglas P. Nowacek, and Katherine Ralls. “Hunting cetaceans with sounds: a worldwide review.” Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (2008).
  • Fenton, Brock, Frants H. Jensen, Elisabeth KV Kalko, and Peter L. Tyack. “Sonar signals of bats and toothed whales.” Biosonar (2014): 11-59.

  • 3.“Conservation Management Plan for the Blue Whale—A Recovery Plan under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, Commonwealth of Australia 2015”.
  • Hildebrand JA (2009) Anthropogenic and natural sources of ambient noise in the ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 395:5–20.
  • Nowacek DP, Thorne LH, Johnston DW, Tyack PL (2007) Responses of cetaceans to anthropogenic noise. Mammal Review 37:81–115.
  • Southall B, Bowles A, Ellison W, Finneran J, Gentry R, Greene C, Kastak D, Ketten D, Miller J, Nachtigall P, Richardson J, Thomas J, Tyack P (2007) Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: initial scientific recommendations. Aquatic Mammals 33:437–445.

4. Australian Parliamentary Report (June 2021)

5. Conversation by University of Tasmania (Sep 2023)

6. United Nations Climate Change (Dec 2023)

7. The Guardian (Nov 2023)

8. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2023) Synthesis Report IPCC Synthesis Report 2023

9. Humidity refers to “absolute humidity", the actual amount of water vapour in the air.

10. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2022) Steamy Relationships: How Atmospheric Water Vapor Amplifies Earth’s Greenhouse Effect

11. Pennsylvania State University (2022) Humans can’t endure temperatures and humidities as high as previously thought

12. Vanos et al (2023) A physiological approach for assessing human survivability and liveability to heat in changing climate. Nature Communications. (

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Vanuatu becomes first in the Pacific to set a path towards cervical cancer elimination

Women in Vanuatu will have access to lifesaving cervical cancer screening, vaccination and treatment, thanks to a transformational program launched yesterday in Port Vila that is being rolled out across the archipelago nation.

Group photo of people from supporting organisations
At the Vanuatu launch, clinic visit in Port Vila. Pictured are a mixture of multiple organisations that support ECCWP including; in-country ECCWP Vanuatu team, Vanuatu Family Health Association, C4 partners, Cepheid and Minderoo Foundation. Photo credit: Kirby Institute.

The Eliminating Cervical Cancer in the Western Pacific (ECCWP) program in Vanuatu – where women are seven times more likely to die from cervical cancer than those in Australia – is a collaboration with the Vanuatu Ministry of Health, Vanuatu Family Health Association and Australian organisations including the Daffodil Centre (a joint venture between Cancer Council NSW and The University of Sydney), the Kirby Institute UNSW Sydney, the Australian Centre for Cervical Cancer Prevention, and Family Planning Australia.

The program has been made possible by investment from Minderoo Foundation and other funding partners and is on track to prevent cervical cancer and deaths from cervical cancer in Vanuatu.

More than 5,000 women have so far been screened for HPV, or human papillomavirus, which causes most cervical cancers. A further 25,000 women are due to benefit from a cervical cancer screening program that involves same day screening and treatment.

Thanks to a range of initiatives, the Vanuatu government declared yesterday that it would be the first nation in the Pacific to commit to a national strategy for the elimination of cervical cancer.

The Hon Leonard Joshua Pikioune, Minister of Health, said, “In Vanuatu, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer amongst women. Every year we have women who have lost their lives and the number is increasing every year. Today we are proud that Vanuatu is the first country in the Pacific to commit to the elimination of cervical cancer.”

Until now, vaccination, screening and treatment for cervical cancer have not been widely implemented across the Pacific. The World Health Organization has put forward coverage targets to be achieved by 2030 that will set all countries firmly on a path towards the elimination of cervical cancer: to vaccinate 90 per cent of girls against HPV before age 15; HPV-based screening for 70 per cent of women at age 35 and again at 45; and ensure that 90 per cent of women diagnosed with cervical pre-cancer and cancer are treated.

Dr Margaret Tarere, an obstetrician gynaecologist at Vila Central Hospital, said that cervical cancer screening and vaccination delivered through the program is improving the outcomes and experiences of women in Vanuatu.

“HPV screening has a lot of positive impacts in terms of patient satisfaction of awareness and their health seeking behaviours, knowing that they are free from the virus. It means that positive cases can be treated in a timely manner, preventing them from developing cervical cancer and at the same time preventing the financial, social, psychosocial burden on their families, their community and Vanuatu as a whole,” Dr Tarere said.

Professor Andrew Vallely, Head of Global Reproductive Health at the Kirby Institute, said that the national strategy will save lives.

“We congratulate the Vanuatu Ministry of Health on leading the Pacific region with their commitment to the elimination of cervical cancer,” Prof Vallely said.

“Cervical cancer remains one of the most common causes of death among women in our region. Through the ECCWP program, we are thrilled to support Vanuatu’s cervical cancer elimination strategy and the tremendous leadership and vision of the Vanuatu Ministry of Health. It is truly a privilege to be part of this landmark endeavour.”

Dr Boniface Damutalau, gynaecologist and obstetrician at Vila Central Hospital, added that the screening programs for cervical cancer in Vanuatu were vital in helping communities without the resources or infrastructure to access screening and treatment.

“Without cervical cancer screening, the only time you know there is a problem with cervical cancer is once it is too late, advanced disease. In the early stages of cervical cancer, you don’t have any symptoms or signs, the only way you can diagnose it is through screening,” he said.

“This project is a big relief. Not only can we provide screening for age-eligible women across Vanuatu through a combination of fixed clinics and outreach, but we also don’t have to wait for results. We can treat those who test positive for cancer-causing HPV types immediately on the same day. With population spread over 69 inhabited islands, this is important,” Dr Damutalau said.

Florina, a Port Vila woman, shared her experience of receiving the screening and treatment as part of the program at Vila Central Hospital.

“As a single mother, I am very grateful that I get to find out earlier so that I can get treatment in time and I can spend time with kids; see them grow in the future as some of them are still really small. I believe that if we do not come forward to get tested, we may not live as long as we could have, so I think that it is really good that we have this easy access to check up on our health.”

Tess Howard, Head of Cancer Prevention at Minderoo Foundation, highlighted the potential for the collaborative approach applied in Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea as part of the ECCWP to be used in other nations where women are suffering from cervical cancer.

“Global issues need global support to achieve true impact. When philanthropy, industry, researchers, community organisations and governments come together, we have the power to advance lasting change for a fairer future for women and their families in the Western Pacific,” Ms Howard said.

Minderoo Foundation’s investment is bolstered by donations of equipment and consumables from Cepheid and Copan.

Eliminating Cervical Cancer in the Western Pacific Highlights:

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Igniting Dreams: Young entrepreneurs participate in program to accelerate Indigenous-led businesses

A new cohort of First Nations entrepreneurs are participating in a program to inspire innovative approaches to solving global challenges, building capacity and enhancing business skills. Youth Co:Lab programme in Australia is co-led by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Citi Foundation, in partnership with Minderoo Foundation.

Group photo of young First Nations entrepreneurs
Young entrepreneurs gathered at the Youth Co:Lab Regional Summit in Bangkok, Thailand July 2023. Photo credit: UNDP supplied.

In July 2023, 200 youth participants representing 20 countries and territories attended the Youth Co:Lab Regional Summit in Bangkok, Thailand, to discuss how they can help tackle the world’s most pressing societal issues through leadership, social innovation and entrepreneurship.

Twenty-five First Nations entrepreneurs aged 18-30 have been selected to participate in the Minderoo Foundation’s Dream Venture masterclasses, run in partnership with the Wade Institute, which takes place in March 2024 and culminates in a pitch Gala event in April 2024.

They will receive coaching and mentorship to grow their businesses, attract investment and gain access to networks. Each can win up to $200,000 in seed funding and have the opportunity to pitch and network with investors and entrepreneurs at the Gala event in April 2024.

The Masterclasses will be facilitated by the Wade Institute of Entrepreneurship, a leading Australian centre for entrepreneurial training.

Participants will learn key strategies to raise capital and become investor-ready, meet like-minded First Nations entrepreneurs, investors and business leaders, and understand how to grow a sustainable business that balances social and economic returns.

Leslie Delaforce, Head of Indigenous Entrepreneurship, Minderoo Foundation, said the initiative, in its second year, has promoted awareness among international stakeholders, both government and business, of the unique role that young First Nations entrepreneurs can play in contributing towards the Sustainable Development Goals.

“What we are currently seeing is First Nations entrepreneurs overcoming obstacles and not only producing incredible results in Australia but also making an impact globally. The potential here is endless. Minderoo is proud to support the growth of First Nations business and entrepreneurship through the Dream Venture program, which will take place in 2024,” said Mr Delaforce.

Beniam Gebrezghi, Programme Specialist, Youth and Civil Society, UNDP Asia and the Pacific, added, “At Youth Co:Lab, together with our co-leads Citi Foundation, we are excited to be partnering with the Minderoo Foundation to support young Indigenous entrepreneurs. Our commitment to inclusivity, ensuring no one is left behind, remains central at the core of our work and programming. Dream Venture Masterclass represents another significant step towards our vision of empowering all youth. We look forward to enabling young founders in Australia and making them a part of our Asia-Pacific wide Youth Co:Lab community.”

Louise Lindsay, Head of Corporate Affairs, Citi Australia said, “UNDP and the Citi Foundation co-created the Youth Co:Lab initiative in 2017, recognising the key role youth can play in enabling progress and finding solutions for the most pressing challenges faced in their communities. We are delighted to support Youth Co:Lab in Australia and in partnership with UNDP and Minderoo Foundation enable young Indigenous entrepreneurs to become investment-ready and create economic opportunity.”

In July 2023, First Nations entrepreneurs were among 200+ participants at the regional Youth Co:Lab Summit 2023 held in Bangkok, Thailand, under the theme ‘Inclusive Entrepreneurship’, showcasing and inspiring youth action from underserved communities, as well as youth contributing to solutions to support the most excluded and hardest to reach groups to leave no one behind.

Youth Co:lab, UNDP, Citi Foundation logos.
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Minderoo Foundation commits $10m in humanitarian aid to Gaza, matching Australian government package

Minderoo Foundation has committed AU$10 million for humanitarian aid to civilians affected by the conflict in Gaza, matching the Australian government’s package.

Image of one of the warehouses where the Egyptian Red Crescent stores foreign aid destined for Gaza once the Gaza-Egypt border opens at Arish City
One of the warehouses where the Egyptian Red Crescent stores foreign aid destined for Gaza once the Gaza-Egypt border opens at Arish City. Photo credit: Mahmoud Khaled via Getty Images.

In consultation with the Australian government, the Minderoo funding will be provided to UN agencies and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), enabling the delivery of urgent medical supplies and support, emergency water, nutrition as well as child protection.

Minderoo Foundation Chairman, Dr Andrew Forrest AO, said it was critical that Minderoo did what it could during global crises, when civilians are deprived of basic necessities.

“The people of Gaza are already suffering greatly. We feel a responsibility with the Australian government to do what we can to avert the rapid acceleration of this humanitarian tragedy, where innocent families are caught in a deadly crossfire that is not of their making,” Dr Forrest said.

“Minderoo continues to provide assistance to the people of Ukraine and will do the same for the civilians of Gaza who are being deprived of basic necessities due to the cruelties of conflict. We all agree that innocent children, mums and dads should be protected as much as possible.

“We support the Australian government’s $10 million package and will match it. We will do all within our power to ensure this aid reaches those that need it as quickly as humanly possible.”

Minderoo Foundation Co-chair, Nicola Forrest AO, said the assistance package will help protect the most vulnerable.

“With the humanitarian situation in Gaza rapidly deteriorating, it is vital that we act now so essential aid can be provided as quickly as possible,” Mrs Forrest said.

“Once more we witness the truth that children suffer disproportionately as innocent victims of conflict.

“It’s this stark reality that fuels Minderoo’s commitment to making a difference. By empowering our on-the-ground partners, the United Nations and MSF, our support will reach those who are most in need.”

Access to a VNR with comments from Dr Andrew Forrest is available here.

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The Plastic Health Map

Scientists establish world-first database mapping research on plastic chemicals to potential human harms

A team of scientists at Australia’s philanthropic Minderoo Foundation has created a world-first database that maps more than 3,500 studies dating back to the 1960s on plastic chemical exposure and human health impacts.

The world-first Plastic Health Map allows users to filter scientific literature available by type of plastic chemical exposure, country, and human health outcomes.
The world-first Plastic Health Map allows users to filter scientific literature available by type of plastic chemical exposure, country and human health outcomes.

Minderoo Foundation’s chemistry, data and health experts screened more than 100,000 individual scientific papers from multiple scientific journals to develop the open-access, interactive online tool – the Plastic Health Map.

The team uncovered growing evidence clusters, as well as stark research gaps. Marcus Gover, Director (Plastics) of Minderoo Foundation, said: “The researchers recommend a precautionary approach to chemical regulation, with continued health monitoring on new and existing plastic chemicals to ensure human health is protected.”

The database focuses on plastic chemicals to which consumers are commonly exposed: polymers, chemical additives that act as plasticisers and flame retardants, bisphenols, and per- or polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Users can filter the scientific literature available by type of plastic chemical exposure, country and human health outcome.

Louise Goodes, Plastic Health Map Project Lead at Minderoo Foundation, said the aim was to build a greater understanding of this emerging issue and inform regulation changes. It also provides a head start for scientists, highlighting the opportunities and priorities for future research.

“The Map includes studies from the 1960s onwards because this was when large-scale production and plastic pollution began to increase significantly, making human exposure to plastic materials and their degradation products inevitable,” Ms Goodes explained.

“Given the enormous quantity of plastic materials currently in use, as well as the fact that we were unable to determine whether many of the plastic chemicals in use globally had actually been measured in living humans and evaluated for possible health impacts, we identified an urgent need to systematically map existing research.”

The studies indicate that we are exposed to – often unregulated - plastic chemicals via inhalation, ingestion and skin contact. Children are additionally exposed prenatally, for example, via the placenta, and postnatally via breast milk.

The Plastic Health Map research spotlights concerning information gaps, including:

  • Of more than 1,500 chemicals mapped, less than 30 per cent have been investigated for human health impacts.
  • Many human health outcomes have not been investigated for any given chemicals class.
  • Few studies have addressed “substitution” chemicals, such as organophosphate flame retardants, phthalate substitutes and bisphenol analogues, which have increasingly replaced restricted additives.
  • The impact of micro- and/or nanoplastics on human health was not examined in any studies screened.
  • Very few studies have been conducted in low-income countries where populations may be heavily exposed to plastic waste.

The research project, conducted using Systematic Evidence Map methodology, is described, along with a discussion about the key results, in an article published in Environment International. The authors of this study call for a “paradigm shift in chemical regulation” whereby, in the absence of evidence for human harm, we can’t assume that new chemicals are safe.

“While as authors we fully expected gaps in research, the extent of those gaps shocked us.” said Professor Sarah Dunlop, Minderoo Foundation’s Head of Plastics and Human Health. “All new plastic chemicals should be tested for safety before being introduced in consumer products, with ongoing post-introduction monitoring of their levels in human biospecimens and evaluation of health effects throughout the lives of individuals and across generations.”

Visit the Plastic Health Map for more information and videos.

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New report links compounding global crises to modern slavery

The Global Slavery Index reveals the number of people living in modern slavery has grown since 2018 against a backdrop of increasing and more complex conflicts, widespread environmental degradation, climate-induced migration, a global rollback of women’s rights, and the economic and social impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

A woman walks past a mural calling for women and children's rights in Afghanistan
A woman walks past a mural calling for women and children’s rights in Afghanistan. Photo credit: Nava Jamshidi via Getty Images.

The latest Global Slavery Index, produced by human rights group Walk Free, reveals the 10 countries with the highest prevalence of modern slavery are North Korea, Eritrea, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Türkiye, Tajikistan, United Arab Emirates, Russia, Afghanistan, and Kuwait.

“Modern slavery permeates every aspect of our society. It is woven through our clothes, lights up our electronics, and seasons our food. At its core, modern slavery is a manifestation of extreme inequality. It is a mirror held to power, reflecting who in any given society has it and who does not. Nowhere is this paradox more present than in our global economy through transnational supply chains,” said Founding Director of Walk Free, Grace Forrest.

The report highlights the role played by G20 nations in fuelling forced labour within global supply chains, including state-imposed forced labour. The G20 accounts for over half of all people living in modern slavery and imports US$468 billion of at-risk products annually. The United States was by far the biggest importer of at-risk products (US$169.6 billion). Electronics remained the highest value at-risk product (US$243.6 billion), followed by garments (US$147.9 billion), palm oil (US$19.7 billion), solar panels (US$14.8 billion), and textiles (US$12.7 billion).

The report revealed six G20 nations are among the countries with the largest number of people in modern slavery, India (11 million), China (5.8 million), Russia (1.9 million), Indonesia (1.8 million), Türkiye (1.3 million) and the United States (1.1 million).

The report also shows how climate change has exacerbated modern slavery, forcing millions of people to migrate in unplanned ways putting them at higher risk of exploitation. Increasingly intense weather events are displacing communities and spurring risks of modern slavery; while sectors at high risk of forced labour, such as mining, logging, and textile/garment manufacturing, contribute to climate degradation. There is increasing evidence that renewable industries, vital for transitioning to clean energy, are reliant on forced labour.

Since 2018 the number of people living in modern slavery has increased to 50 million, but government action has stagnated, particularly among those with traditionally stronger responses. The global community is even further from achieving the goals they agreed to make a priority; no government is on track to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goal 8.7 of ending modern slavery, forced labour, and human trafficking by 2030.

In recent years, Australia, Canada, Germany, and Norway have introduced legislation to hold business and government accountable for exploitation that occurs in global supply chains. While a step in the right direction, G20 countries should be using their leverage to move from intention to real action.

Forrest added: “With 50 million people living in modern slavery today, this Global Slavery Index demands immediate action. Walk Free is calling on governments around the world to step up their efforts to end modern slavery on their shores and in their supply chains. We know the scale of the issue and have the knowledge and the policies needed to act. What we need now is political will.”

The report calls on governments around the world to immediately take the following five key actions:

  1. Implement stronger measures to combat forced labour in public and private supply chains by introducing legislation to stop governments and businesses from sourcing goods or services linked to modern slavery.
  2. Embed anti-slavery measures in humanitarian and crisis responses, and ensure that human rights are embedded in efforts to build a green economy.
  3. Prioritise human rights when engaging with repressive regimes, by conducting due diligence to ensure that any trade, business, or investment is not contributing to or benefitting from state-imposed forced labour, including where it occurs in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China.
  4. Focus on prevention and protection for vulnerable populations by providing primary and secondary education for all children, including girls.
  5. Ensure effective civil and criminal protections in legislation to tackle forced and child marriage, including raising the age of marriage to 18 for girls and boys, with no exceptions.

For more information, please visit

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Newsby Minderoo Foundation

7-year-old Molly reveals how peek-a-boo can change the world in new TED talk

Minderoo Foundation has partnered with TED and UNICEF to showcase Minderoo’s global mission to raise awareness about the importance of brain development in the first five years.

Molly Wright speaking at TED Monterey
Molly Wright speaks at TEDMonterey: Session Zero. July 2021. Photo courtesy of TED.

A ground-breaking TED Talk by a 7-year-old girl is set to change the way parents and caregivers around the world view early childhood brain development and how adults interact with children.

Molly Wright, a Grade 2 student from Queensland, Australia, today became one of the youngest TED speakers in history after her talk premiered at TED’s Session Zero in Monterey, California, USA, and was simultaneously sent around the world via

Directed by acclaimed filmmaker Michael Gracey (director of The Greatest Showman), Molly’s TED Talk demonstrates the simple yet life-changing things we can all do to help children thrive.

Molly’s TED Talk was brought to life by Minderoo Foundation, one of Australasia’s largest philanthropic organisation.

In the lead up to today’s global launch, Molly’s TED Talk was shown to new parents in maternity wards in Australia (through Ramsay Health Care) and Afghanistan (via Bayat Foundation) as part of a pilot – with plans to have the film shown in more hospitals around the world.

UNICEF is supporting with global distribution of the film.

Leading philanthropist and Minderoo Foundation Co-Chair Nicola Forrest AO said it was one of Minderoo Foundation’s focus areas to ensure every child, no matter where they grow up or who their parents are, has an equal chance to reach their full potential.

“We believe every child can, and should, thrive by the age of five,” Mrs Forrest said. “Science tells us that the volume of a child’s brain has reached 90 per cent by the age of five so we want to help set parents up for success and increase awareness of the importance of having positive interactions with children – early and often.

“Molly beautifully delivers this universal truth – that the early years are the most critical period for shaping a child’s life now, and in their future.”

Head of TED Chris Anderson said Molly’s message would resonate around the globe.

“I absolutely love this talk,” Mr Anderson said. “Ideas can come from anywhere. To hear a powerful idea like this spoken so eloquently by a child … Wow! This deserves a huge audience.”

Initial feedback from the first hospital pilots in Australia and Afghanistan has been heartening, with more than nine (9) out of 10 new mums and dads saying that the film has inspired them to connect, talk and play more with their kids in their early years. Nearly all viewers said they would want their friends and family to view the film.

“Molly’s TED Talk draws on the five top tips of connect, play, talk, healthy home and community, focusing on the simple and fun things we can do in a child’s first five years that will have a profound impact on their brain development and wellbeing,” Mrs Forrest said.

“Not only is this important information to share amongst parents and carers, but policymakers and world leaders.”

Quotes from our partners

Professor Desiree Silva, Head of Paediatrics, Joondalup Health Campus (Perth, Australia)

“The opportunity for us to share the film with patients in our Joondalup and Glengarry maternity wards and early parenting centre has been a real joy.

“The message to connect and play, early and often with children from birth to age five is vital in their development and overall wellbeing.

“New parents at our hospitals found the video educational, entertaining and inspiring.

“Molly’s TED Talk has the potential to improve the health outcomes for children on a global scale.”

Ms Mariam Bayat, Director, The Bayat Foundation

“Maternal and early childhood health has been a priority for the Bayat Foundation since our inception, and the opportunity to work in partnership with the Minderoo Foundation to launch Molly’s TED talk highlighting the importance of early childhood education in Afghanistan is a unique privilege for us and serves a compelling need in our country.

“Sharing Molly’s TED Talk and the important lessons about positive engagement between parents and children in the critical early years of life will inspire Afghan mothers, fathers, and families to further instil critical thinking, emotional intelligence, inclusive communication, and collaborative problem-solving skills with their young children.

“We believe that this presentation will help give rise to thousands of Afghan “Mollys” in the years ahead – talented, confident, compassionate, positive, and emotionally secure Afghan children who will grow into the nation’s future doctors, educators, lawyers, and leaders, a tremendous resource for Afghanistan and a lasting tribute to the impact that passionate philanthropic organisations – Afghan and Australian – can achieve in the near and medium-term despite the daily challenges in our nation today.”

Mr Justin Graham, Group CEO, M&C Saatchi AUNZ

“The M&C Saatchi Group is incredibly proud to be a part of this initiative with Minderoo, Australia’s largest philanthropic agency, and the talented team at production company – FINCH.

“Molly’s TED Talk will be launched via social media, in hospitals around the world, and will be supported by a global launch strategy to connect the content to the right people at the right moments.

“Minderoo is an organisation that is creating change on a global level, and we are delighted that we are able to partner with them to realise their ambitions through creative thinking.”

Mr Rob Galluzzo, CEO, FINCH

“We’re excited to see the difference that this film makes over the years to come. It’s been a pleasure to work with world-class partners such as Minderoo Foundation, M&C Saatchi and TED to capture a discussion that will change parents, guardians, their children and future generations.”

About TED

TED is a nonprofit organisation devoted to Ideas Worth Spreading, often in the form of short talks delivered by leading thinkers and doers. Many of these talks are given at TED conferences, intimate TED Salons and thousands of independently organised TEDx events around the world. Videos of these talks are made available, free, on and other platforms. Audio versions of TED Talks are published to TED Talks Daily, available on all podcast platforms.

TED’s open and free initiatives for spreading ideas include, where new TED Talk videos are posted daily; TEDx, which licenses thousands of individuals and groups to host local, self-organised TED-style events around the world; the TED Fellows program, which selects innovators from around the globe to amplify the impact of their remarkable projects and activities; The Audacious Project, which surfaces and funds critical ideas that have the potential to impact millions of lives; TED Translators, which crowdsources the subtitling of TED Talks so that big ideas can spread across languages and borders; and the educational initiative TED-Ed.

TED also offers TED@Work, a program that reimagines TED Talks for workplace learning. TED also has a growing library of original podcasts, including The TED Interview with Chris Anderson, WorkLife with Adam Grant, Far Flung with Saleem Reshamwala and How to Be a Better Human.

Related News

Indigenous Employment Index – Employer Roadmap

For the best experience we’ve made this framework for larger screens only.
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The design of the Employer Roadmap is based on artwork by Julianne Wade.
Partnerships and Community
Strategies, partners and Indigenous voices.
Genuine Partnerships
Level 1
  • Partner with schools and universities.

    pp. 98-101

  • Partner with Indigenous businesses to guide community engagement, recruitment and/or Indigenous employment.

    pp. 114-121

Level 2
  • Partner with key Indigenous reconciliation and supply organisations.

    pp. 114, 120-121

Level 3
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 4
  • Indigenous pipeline, cultural capability and cultural immersion partnerships.

    pp. 114-119

Partnerships and Community
Strategies, partners and Indigenous voices.
Community Engagement Strategy
Level 1
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 2
  • Indigenous pillar in community engagement strategy.

    pp. 118-119

Level 3
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 4
  • Localised and place based Indigenous community engagement strategy led by Indigenous employee.

    pp. 118-119

Partnerships and Community
Strategies, partners and Indigenous voices.
Procurement and Supply Chains
Level 1
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 2
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 3
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 4
  • Embed Indigenous employment commitments in procurement policies.

    pp. 120-121

Commitments and Accountability
Policies, strategies, targets and accountability.
Reporting and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
Level 1
  • No practices are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 2
  • Annual Indigenous employment reporting to board and senior leadership including leaders KPI review.
    pp. 50-51

Level 3
  • No practices are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 4
  • Monthly Indigenous employment reporting to senior leadership including leaders KPI review.
    pp. 50-51

Commitments and Accountability
Policies, strategies, targets and accountability.
Plans, Policies and Governance
Level 1
  • Develop both Diversity and Inclusion strategy and policy with Indigenous employment as a key pillar.
    p. 43

  • Develop an Indigenous employment plan and/or Reflect RAP.
    pp. 44-45

Level 2
  • Develop Innovate RAP, and commit to truth telling, particularly focused on historical trauma.
    pp. 44-45

Level 3
  • Commit to Stretch RAP let by Indigenous leader or CEO.
    pp. 44-45, pp. 48-49

Level 4
  • Commit to Elevate RAP led by Indigenous leader or CEO.
    pp. 44-45, pp. 48-49

  • 10 year+ Indigenous employment plan and progress published externally.
    pp. 50-51

Commitments and Accountability
Policies, strategies, targets and accountability.
Procurement and Funding
Level 1
  • Give weight to tendering parties with Indigenous employment programs; and Indigenous-owned businesses.
    p. 121

Level 2
  • Continue to build previous level practice(s).

Level 3
  • Continue to build previous level practice(s).

Level 4
  • Continue to build previous level practice(s).

Commitments and Accountability
Policies, strategies, targets and accountability.
Level 1
  • Establish employment targets.
    pp. 50-51

Level 2
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 3
  • Publish employment targets and progress externally.
    pp. 50-51

Level 4
  • Continue to build previous level practice(s).

Workplace Culture and Inclusion
Indigenous cultural awareness, capability and cultural safety.
Embedded Perspectives
Level 1
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 2
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 3
  • Seek Indigenous input into initiatives.
    p. 71

  • Compensate and recognise internal and external advisors.
    p. 71

Level 4
  • Continue to build previous level practice(s).

Workplace Culture and Inclusion
Indigenous cultural awareness, capability and cultural safety.
Level 1
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 2
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 3
  • Regular Indigenous lived experience reporting to board, senior leaders and line managers.
    p. 86

Level 4
  • Continue to build previous level practice(s).

Workplace Culture and Inclusion
Indigenous cultural awareness, capability and cultural safety.
Level 1
  • Indigenous employee network and all Indigenous employees are provided time to participate in activities.
    p. 86

Level 2
  • Continue to build previous level practice(s).

Level 3
  • Continue to build previous level practice(s).

Level 4
  • Continue to build previous level practice(s).

Workplace Culture and Inclusion
Indigenous cultural awareness, capability and cultural safety.
Cultural Learning
Level 1
  • Conduct cultural learning needs analysis.
    p. 82

Level 2
  • No practices are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 3
  • Mandatory learning for all employees.
    p. 82

  • Revise annually, evaluate progress and report.
    p. 82

Level 4
  • Tailored learning for board and leadership and those engaging Indigenous communities.
    p. 82

Workplace Culture and Inclusion
Indigenous cultural awareness, capability and cultural safety.
Cultural Events
Level 1
  • Celebrate NAIDOC Week and National Reconciliation Week and consistently Acknowledge Country at events.
    pp. 84-85

Level 2
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 3
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 4
  • Celebrate and evaluate cultural events.
    pp. 84-85

Workplace Culture and Inclusion
Indigenous cultural awareness, capability and cultural safety.
People and HR Process
Level 1
  • Specific Indigenous considerations in Code of Conduct, grievance processes, Employee Assistance Program; and cultural safety in health and safety policy.
    pp. 74-75, 90

  • Provide opportunity for Indigenous employees to identify and have processes with Indigenous data governance inclusions.
    pp. 74-75

Level 2
  • Flexibility and cultural leave in People/HR policies, communicate and discuss needs with Indigenous employees.
    pp. 74-75

Level 3
  • Continue to build previous level practice(s).

Level 4
  • Continue to build previous level practice(s).

Attraction and Recruitment
Indigenous recruitment processes and support, role availability, pipeline development and pre-employment support.
Support Indigenous Applicants
Level 1
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 2
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 3
  • Indigenous representation on interview panel and inclusive process.

    p. 97

Level 4
  • Support Indigenous applicants in a range of areas.
    p. 97

Attraction and Recruitment
Indigenous recruitment processes and support, role availability, pipeline development and pre-employment support.
Plan and Manage
Level 1
  • Indigenous attraction and recruitment strategy.

    p. 94

  • Hiring manager guidance on the impact of colonisation on work readiness.

    pp. 68-69

Level 2
  • Identify Indigenous candidates, guaranteed interview based on meeting requirements and feedback to unsuccessful applicants.

    pp. 96-97

Level 3
  • Indigenous led attraction and recruitment strategy including an Indigenous Employee Value Proposition.

    pp. 33, 94

  • Work with Indigenous recruitment agencies to provide pathway programs for trainees and interns.

    pp. 33, 94, 98, 100

Level 4
  • Attraction strategy for Indigenous senior leaders.

    p. 95

Engagement and Development
Participation, retention and employee engagement, career pathways, and promotion.
Level 1
  • Provide informal mentoring.

    pp. 104-105

  • Study leave for Indigenous employees.

    pp. 104-105

Level 2
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 3
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 4
  • Specific leadership and development programs for Indigenous employees.

    p. 104

Engagement and Development
Participation, retention and employee engagement, career pathways, and promotion.
Level 1
  • No practices at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 2
  • Exit survey and interview for all Indigenous employees.

    p. 108

Level 3
  • No practices at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 4
  • Retention process during restructures and board and senior leadership retention reporting.

    p. 106

Engagement and Development
Participation, retention and employee engagement, career pathways, and promotion.
Reviews and Promotions
Level 1
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 2
  • No practises are at this level. Continue to focus on other practises within this domain.

Level 3
  • Indigenous representation in talent review and promotion process.

    pp. 104-105

Level 4
  • Continue to build previous level practice(s).

Partnerships and Community

Strategy, partners and Indigenous voices.

  • Do you engage with Indigenous communities and organisations, including through employment partnerships and their supply chains?
Commitments and Accountability

Policies, strategies, targets and accountability.

  • Do you have strong commitments to Indigenous employment, do you report on progress towards targets, and who is held accountable for results?
Workplace Culture and Inclusion

Indigenous cultural awareness, capability and cultural safety.

  • How do Indigenous employees feel in their workplace in terms of safety, racism, cultural awareness, cultural load and identity?
  • What practices are in place to support the workforce on their journey to intercultural responsiveness?
Attraction and Recruitment

Indigenous recruitment processes and support, role availability, pipeline development and pre-employment support.

  • How do you attract and recruit Indigenous employees, and are these practices effective?
Engagement and Development

Participation, retention and employee engagement, career pathways, and promotion.

  • Do you provide career pathways for development of Indigenous employees?
  • Are Indigenous employees retained and represented at senior levels?
Empower Indigenous leadership and intergenerational change
To empower Indigenous employees and the broader Indigenous community, employers need to focus on Indigenous leadership and drive intergenerational change, such as by supporting future generations. To do this successfully, employers should be embedding and continually improving all practices. Indigenous Australians should be empowered and enabled to make decisions and have their voices heard.
Act authentically through people focused care and genuine relationships
Significant reflection and learning are required before employers should move to action. Employers can begin to hold themselves accountable and build strong relationships with external Indigenous providers. Taking a people centred approach based on genuine relationships, care and authenticity is key. Employers need to understand and acknowledge unconscious bias and then take action to overcome it and apply their learning in the workplace. To ensure sustainability and establish a positive legacy, employers must view action as an ongoing responsibility rather than a one-off commitment.
Yarn through two-way dialogue
Employers should actively engage with their employees, processes and protocols in a two-way dialogue to consider the context. In some cases, this may involve external stakeholders. Both quantitative and qualitative data are critical to making informed decisions based on a comprehensive and systemic approach. Employees may have suggestions or questions about the practices being undertaken, and it is important to engage with employees to help them understand the ‘why’.
Listen to Indigenous voices and lived experiences
Employers need to first listen to Indigenous employees during the planning and development of Indigenous employment actions. Indigenous employee engagement allows for deep consideration of the design and impact of practices on individual experience. However, it should not fall only to Indigenous Australians to drive change, and employers should be cognisant of the impacts of cultural load. Strategies should be put in place to avoid contributing to the load; for instance, through offering compensation for advice, utilising identified positions, or approaching the Indigenous employee network to gauge interest in participating in activities or giving advice.

Click parts of the framework to show more information.
Have some commitment to Indigenous employment and implementing basic Indigenous employment practices. Initial outcomes are yet to be seen, or in progress.
Implementing many Indigenous employment practices, and Indigenous employment outcomes are visible.
Embedding a wide range of Indigenous employment practices with strong outcomes across several domains. Indigenous employment is becoming an integral way that the organisation does business.
Displays the highest commitment to Indigenous employment, by achieving strong Indigenous employment outcomes in all domains, implementing leading practice, and publicly influencing and supporting other employers with their journey.