Indonesia is one of the world’s largest archipelagic countries, consisting of over 17,000 islands.1 It is also one of fourteen countries represented on the High-Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy, signalling its commitment to sustainable ocean management.2 Indonesia’s position as the third largest producer of wild–caught fisheries in the world,3 and one of the top ten fish-dependent countries in the world4, highlights the importance of this commitment for protecting Indonesia’s livelihoods, economy and food security.
Indonesia has a developed system of fisheries governance, yet it has demonstrated limited progress in the sustainable management of its fisheries. Most of Indonesia’s assessed stocks are considered to be at sustainable levels of abundance. However, these sustainable stocks account for only 17 per cent of Indonesia’s total catch. The majority (76 per cent) of the total catch in Indonesia’s national waters comes from stocks that are not formally assessed or that lack publicly available data to estimate stock status. Indonesia must urgently work to strengthen management and increase knowledge of fish stocks across all fisheries to advance towards SDG target 14.4.
Progress towards SDG target 14.4
Indonesia has made limited progress towards achieving sustainability in all fisheries in its waters, performing in the bottom one-third of assessed countries globally.
Indonesia demonstrates relatively high stock sustainability, but progress toward SDG target 14.4 is hindered by the large proportion of catch that remains unassessed (76 per cent). Of the 74 stocks assessed, 60 stocks (81 per cent) are estimated to be within sustainable levels of abundance – at or above 40 per cent of unfished levels. However, these sustainable stocks account for only 17 per cent of the total marine catch in Indonesia’s national waters (since 1990). Six per cent of the total catch is estimated to be from overfished stocks, and the remainder of the catch comes from stocks whose status is unknown.
While 33 of Indonesia’s assessed stocks are managed by regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs), these stocks account for only a small proportion (six per cent) of the total catch in Indonesia’s waters. Most of the catch is from fish stocks that occur exclusively within Indonesia’s national waters or are shared with neighbouring countries.
Indonesia performs in the top 10 per cent of countries globally for its governance capacity and has a developed fisheries governance system that, where implemented, promotes sustainable fishing. However, clear gaps remain in terms of the use of science-based management, the provision of harmful subsidies and the protection of worker rights and safety in fisheries.
Indonesia has a solid fisheries policy foundation with clearly stated environmental, economic and livelihood objectives, as well as a strong commitment to international standards in fisheries management and marine conservation. However, Indonesia has yet to demonstrate the same commitment to protecting worker rights and safety in fisheries. For example, it has not ratified the 2007 ILO Work in Fishing Convention (No. 188) or the 2012 IMO Cape Town Agreement.
Indonesia also continues to provide a diverse range of potentially harmful fishing subsidies – such as reduced fuel prices and tax exemptions. In fact, close to two thirds of Indonesia’s fishing subsidies – estimated at US$565 million in 2018 – are provided to these types of programs. Although these subsidies can be used to encourage development of the fisheries industry, they have been linked with overcapacity and overfishing, particularly in industrialised fleets.5
There is evidence that Indonesia has financial and professional capacity to manage its fisheries, with clear measures in place to regulate access to fisheries resources. For example, high quality fisheries information, such as catch, fishing effort and stock health is collected for key fisheries like skipjack tuna, and science-based catch and/or effort limits are used to regulate fishing pressure. However, science-based catch and/or effort rules are used in only a few fisheries. Additionally, harvest control rules – pre-determined rules that guide management action, based on the state of fisheries resources – are not used, even in the valuable skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) fishery.
Indonesia has components of a compliance management system, including on-water and in-port fisheries inspections, graduated sanctions for fisheries violations and a National Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. However, existing research suggests there are high levels of perceived corruption in Indonesia,6 which could undermine these compliance and enforcement programs.
At the local level, fisheries stakeholders are provided with opportunities to participate in management – for example, through community-based and/or customary arrangements. However, there may be limited stakeholder capacity to effectively engage due to a lack of transparency around decision-making, for example through not publishing management meeting minutes.
|Progress score||19.1 out of 100|
|Total reconstructed catch in 2018||8.0 million tonnes|
|Total reconstructed catch (1990 to 2018)||221.0 million tonnes|
|Catch from sustainable stocks (1990 to 2018)||17%|
|Catch from overfished stocks (1990 to 2018)||6%|
|Catch from unassessed stocks (1990 to 2018)||76%|
|Governance capacity||High: Level 8 of 12|
Methods and data sources
Indonesia is considered part of the Central, Southern, Eastern and South-East Asian region. Refer to the Technical Methods for a detailed explanation of the methods used by the Minderoo Foundation to produce the 2021 Global Fishing Index. The Technical Methods should be read in conjunction with the Global Fishing Index Key Insights report, Governance Conceptual Framework and Indicator Codebook.
Indonesia’s Progress score was informed by 74 assessed fish stocks. Twenty-five stocks had recent published official stock assessments, all from regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs). The remaining 49 stocks were assessed using publicly available data and established data limited methods (CMSY++ or the Bayesian Schaefer Model).7, 8 Catch and stock sustainability estimates were reviewed by one local fisheries expert prior to finalisation.
Indonesia’s Governance assessment was informed by four questionnaire respondents, three interviews with local experts and the publicly available literature. Consulted references are listed in the Bibliography below. Our assessment measures country-level fisheries governance, with eight indicators referring specifically to a country’s most valuable fishery, as identified by assessment respondents. The most valuable fishery identified for Indonesia was skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis.
The following sources informed Indonesia’s governance assessment:
Ambari, M. (2019). The Importance of Managing Mainland Public Waters for Common Good. https://www.mongabay.co.id/2019/06/04/pentingnya-kelola-perairan-umum-daratan-untuk-kebaikan-bersama/ [1 May 2020]
Bailey, C. and Zerner, C. (1991). Community Based Fisheries Management in Indonesia, MAST 5, (1), http://www.marecentre.nl/mast/documents/communitybasedfisheriesmanagementinstitutioninIndonesia.pdf [1 May 2020]
California Environmental Associates (2015). Indonesia Fisheries: 2015 Review, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, pp. 1-90. https://www.packard.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Indonesia-Fisheries-2015-Review.pdf [1 May 2020]
Dari Laut (2019). KKP Performance Evaluation of Fishing Vessel Observer. https://darilaut.id/berita/kkp-evaluasi-kinerja-observer-kapal-ikan [1 May 2020]
FisheryProgress.org (2015). Final Pre-assessment Report., MRAG Ltd, 18 Queen Street, London. https://fisheryprogress.org/system/files/documents_assessment/ID1972_Pre-Assessment_Reporting_FINAL.pdf [1 May 2020]
Global Fishing Watch (2020). Sharp Decline in Foreign Fishing Boats in Indonesian Waters. https://globalfishingwatch.org/press-release/sharp-decline-in-foreign-fishing-boats-in-indonesian-waters-global-fishing-watch-analysis/ [1 May 2020]
Indonesia Aquaculture Society (2020). List of Fisheries Associations. http://aquaculture-mai.org/daftar-asosiasi [1 May 2020]
Indonesian Fisheries Research Journal (2020). Indonesian Fisheries Research Journal. http://ejournal-balitbang.kkp.go.id/index.php/ifrj [1 May 2020]
Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and World Wide Fund for Nature (2011). Action Plan Indonesian Tuna Fisheries., Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries & WWF, Indonesia, pp. 1-54. https://www.iccia.com/sites/default/files/policieslegislation/ins176205.pdf [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Affairs, Ministerial Decree No. 30/2020 about Capture Fisheries Business in Fisheries Management Area Republic of Indonesia (2012).http://pelayanan.jakarta.go.id/download/regulasi/peraturan-menteri-kelautan-dan-perikanan-no-per-30-men-2012-tentang-usaha-perikanan-tangkap-di-wilayah-pengelolaan-perikanan-negara-republik-indonesia.pdf [1 May 2020]
Minister of National Development Planning, The Strategic Plan of the Ministry of National Development Planning/ National Development Planning Agency of 2015-2019 (2017).https://www.bappenas.go.id/files/renstra-bappenas/RENSTRA_Bahasa%20Inggris-V2.pdf [8 May 2020]
Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Affairs (2021). SatuData KKP. https://satudata.kkp.go.id/ [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (2012). Indonesia National Plan of Action to Prevent and To Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Jakarta Pusat, pp. 1-49. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/ins165159.pdf [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Ministerial Decree No. 35/2014 about Guidelines of Marine and Fisheries Data Architecture. (2014).http://jdih.kkp.go.id/peraturan/35-permen-kp-2014.pdf [15 June 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (2015). Strategic Plan of the Directorate General of Capture Fisheries, Directorate General of Capture Fisheries, The Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Jakarta, pp. 1-132. http://kinerjaku.kkp.go.id/2018/dok/renstra/RENSTRA_DJPT_2015-2019.pdf [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Ministerial Decree No. 4/2015 about Prohibition of Fishing in Fisheries Management Area State of the Republic of Indonesia 714 (2015).http://jdih.kkp.go.id/peraturan/4-permen-kp-2015-ttg.pdf [3 July 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Ministerial Decree No. 71/2016 about fishing Routes and Fishing Equipment Placement in the Fisheries Management Area of the Republic of Indonesia (2016).http://jdih.kkp.go.id/peraturan/71%20PERMEN-KP%202016.pdf [17 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Ministerial Decree No. 56/2016 About Prohibition of Capture and/or Removal of Lobster (Panulirus spp.), Crab (Scylla spp.), and Crab (Portunus spp.) from the Region of Republic of Indonesia (2016).http://jdih.kkp.go.id/peraturan/56%20PERMEN-KP%202016.pdf [22 June 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Ministerial Decree No. 50/17 about Estimation of potential, number of catch allowed, and Level of Use of Fish Resources in Management Area State Fisheries of the Republic of Indonesia (2017).http://jdih.kkp.go.id/peraturan/50%20KEPMEN-KP%202017.pdf [19 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Director General of Surveillance No.12/2017 on Technical Instructions for Supervising Fishing Vessels (2017).https://kkp.go.id/an-component/media/upload-gambar-pendukung/Ditjen%20PSDKP/Perdirjen%20PSDKP%20No.12%20Tahun%202017%20Tentang%20Juknis%20Pengawasan%20Kapal%20Perikanan_1.pdf [17 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (2017). Verification Sheet of Landing Fish Results. https://sipp.menpan.go.id/pelayanan-publik/kementerian-kelautan-dan-perikanan-republik-indonesia/badan-karantina-ikan-pengendalian-mutu-dan-keamanan-hasil-perikanan/lembar-verifikasi-hasil-pendaratan-ikan [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (2018). Marine and Fisheries in Numbers. https://kkp.go.id/setjen/satudata/page/1453-kelautan-dan-perikanan-dalam-angka [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (2018). The 2018 Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Performance Report. https://kkp.go.id/artikel/9313-laporan-kinerja-kkp-2018 [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (2018). Marine and Fisheries in Figures 2018, The Center for Data, Statistics and Information, The Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Jakarta, pp. 1-384. http://sidatik.kkp.go.id/files/src/023dfaa957829d846cfb59164b6c5774.pdf [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (2019). Organisational Structure of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, p. 1. https://kkp.go.id/an-component/media/upload-gambar-pendukung/kkp/DATA%20KKP/2019/Struktur%20Organisasi/DAFTAR%20ESELON%201-2%20%20KKP%20(per%2023%20Okt%202019).pdf [25 April 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (2019). FAQ Mechanisms for Submission of Fisheries Business Permits (SIUP), Fishing Permits (SIPI) and Fish Transport Vessel Permits (SIKPI). https://kkp.go.id/artikel/8273-faq-mekanisme-pengajuan-surat-izin-usaha-perikanan-siup-surat-izin-penangkapan-ikan-sipi-dan-surat-izin-kapal-pengangkut-ikan-sikpi [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (2019). Statistical table of MMAF employees. http://simpeg.kkp.go.id/dashboardsdm/statistik.php [16 June 2021]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (2019). KKP Sounds for Rising Indonesian Fish Stocks at HLP-Canberra. https://news.kkp.go.id/index.php/kkp-suarakan-stok-ikan-indonesia-meningkat-di-hlp-canberra/ [15 April 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Ministerial Decree No. 33/2019 about Organisation and Working Procedures of Fisheries Management Institutions in the Fisheries Management Area of The Republic of Indonesia (2019).http://jdih.kkp.go.id/peraturan/b0a75-33-permen-kp-2019-ttg-otk-lembaga-pengelola-di-wppnri.pdf [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Ministerial Decree No. 56/2014 about temporary termination (moratorium) of licensing fisheries business licensing in the region (2019).http://jdih.kkp.go.id/peraturan/56-permen-kp-2014-ttg-moratorium-perizinan-usaha-perikanan-tangkap-di-wppnri.pdf [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Ministerial Decree No.107/2015 about Fisheries Management Plan of Tuna, Skipjack and Mackarel (2019).http://jdih.kkp.go.id/peraturan/1-107-kepmen-kp-2015-ttg-rencana-pengelolaan-perikanan-tuna-cakalang……pdf [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Capture Fisheries Log Book (2020). Permen KP No.48/2014.http://jdih.kkp.go.id/peraturan/48-permen-kp-2014.pdf [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Ministerial Decree No 56/ 2014 about temporary termination (Moratorium) licensing fisheries business licensing in the management area (2020).http://jdih.kkp.go.id/peraturan/10%20PERMEN-KP%202015.pdf [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, PER.17/MEN/2006 (2020).http://jdih.kkp.go.id/peraturan/per-17-men-2006.pdf [1 May 2020]
Ministry of Transportation, Ministerial Decree No. 39/2017 about Registration and Nationality of Ships (2017). Indonesia, pp. 1-255.http://jdih.dephub.go.id/assets/uudocs/permen/2017/PM_39_Tahun_2017_new_recognized.pdf [1 May 2020]
Muawanah, U., Yusuf, G., Adrianto, L., Kalther, J., Pomeroy, R., Abdullah, H. and Ruchimat, T. (2018). Review of National Laws and Regulation in Indonesia in Relation to an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management., Marine Policy 91, pp. 150-160, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2018.01.027 [17 April 2020]
People's Representative Council of the Republic of Indonesia, Fisheries Law (UU) no 45/2009 (2009).http://www.dpr.go.id/dokjdih/document/uu/UU_2009_45.pdf [1 May 2020]
Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management (Pty) Ltd (2019). Assessment of the Indonesia Deepwater Demersal Fisheries in Indonesia., Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management (Pty) Ltd., Port Douglas,QLD, Australia, pp. 1-59. https://fisheryprogress.org/system/files/documents_assessment/IndonesiaSnapperAndGrouperPre-assessmentReportFinal11August2018.pdf [1 May 2020]
Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management (Pty) Ltd. (2020). Pre-Assessment of the Indonesia Tuna Longline Fishery Operating in WCPFC, IOTC and Archipelagic and Territorial Waters, Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management (Pty) Ltd., Port Douglas, QLD, Australia. https://fisheryprogress.org/system/files/documents_assessment/Indonesia%20Longline%20Pre_assess [1 May 2020]
President of the Republic of Indonesia, Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 23 Tahun 2014 Tentang Pemerintahan Daerah (2014). Ministerial Regulation No. 23/2014.https://pih.kemlu.go.id/files/UU0232014.pdf [1 May 2020]
Proctor, C.H., Natsir, M., Widodo, A.A., Mahiswara, Utama, A.A., Wudianto, S.F., Hargiyatno, I.T., Sedana, I.G.B., Cooper, S.P., Sadiyah, L., Nurdin, E., Anggawangsa, R.F. and Susanto, K. (2019). A Characterisation of Indonesia’s FAD-based on Tuna Fisheries in Indonesian Waters., Final Report as output of ACIAR Project, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, pp. 1-111. https://www.aciar.gov.au/sites/default/files/project-page-docs/fis-2009-059_fad_fisheries_study_final_report.pdf [1 May 2020]
Toni, R. (2016). Overview of National Action Plan for Sustainable Tuna Management in Indonesia and Outlining Future Plan For Catch And Effort Control And Its Integration Into Regional Tuna Management, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Bali, Indonesia, pp. 1-35. http://www.btc-ictbf-2016.kkp.go.id/public/upload/files/Overview_of_National_Action_Plan_for_Sustainable_Tuna_Management_in_Indonesia_by_Toni_Ruchimat.pdf [1 May 2020]
Ulya, F.N. (2019). Again, KKP Arrests 3 Foreign Fish Stealing Ships. https://money.kompas.com/read/2019/10/24/135305626/lagi-kkp-tangkap-3-kapal-asing-pencuri-ikan?page=all [1 March 2020]
WWF Indonesia office (2020). Indonesia Enters the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission as a Member. https://www.wwf.or.id/en/?29763/Indonesia-Menjadi-Anggota-Komisi-Perikanan–Wilayah-Pasifik-Barat-dan-Tengah [1 May 2020]